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After the successful Allied invasions of western France, Germany gathered reserve forces and launched a massive counter-offensive in the Ardennes, which collapsed in January 1945. By March, Western Allied forces were crossing the Rhine River, capturing hundreds of thousands of troops from Germany's Army. The Red Army had meanwhile entered Austria, and both fronts quickly approached Berlin. Bombing campaigns by Allied aircraft were pounding German territory, sometimes destroying entire cities in a night. In the first several months of 1945, Germany put up a fierce defense, but rapidly lost territory, ran out of supplies, and exhausted its options. On April 25 1945, East met West on the River Elbe, when Soviet and American troops met near Torgau, Germany. Then came the end of the Third Reich, as the Soviets took Berlin. A demand for Unconditional Surrender by a whole country or alliance of countries was unprecedented in warfare until that time. But in 1945, nobody really knew what that phrase, initiated by Franklin. D. Roosevelt, might mean if applied to an entire country. In this documentary we will go to Germany almost 7 decades after the War and witness the influence and power the United States still holds over Germany.

Narration

With the fall of Berlin on May 8, 1945, the German army was defeated by the Allied forces and Hitler’s Third Reich was toppled, putting an end to a destructive war that took the lives of millions of people. Following that, Germany unconditionally signed a surrender document drawn up by the Allied nations.

Jurge Moore, Manager of berlin Museum

In early May 1945, the famous Elbe meeting took place. Soviet and American troops met at the River Elbe in Germany which was just about the frontline of the battle. But the base and the headquarters of the Western Allied forces were in the city of Reims in France. The German state tried to bring about a quasi-surrender situation but if that had happened, the Allied nations wouldn’t have reached the goal for which they had fought the war.

US Army footage

After the last war, this small area of Germany was occupied. Today, every square inch is under the authority of allied troops. At the end of the last war, this was the government of Germany. Today, this is the government. We’ve come to Germany not as liberators, but as conquerors. And this time we shall remain, for ten years, for 20, if necessary forever. Carlo Schmid himself will determine how long, for we shall not leave before Carlo Schmid has come to realize that he himself is responsible.

Jurge Moore, Manager of berlin Museum

They hold talks in Reims for a couple of days and a general surrender occurs on May 7th. But the soviet envoy to the talks is a low-ranking military officer and for the same reason, Stalin comes out and says I want the Act of Military Surrender, with certain additions and alternations, to be signed in Berlin, the capital of the Third Reich, and in the presence of Marshall Georgy Zhukov, Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army. By the same token, the signing of the surrender documents is done here one more time on May 8th. As a result all the Allied representatives fly in here before mid-day, sign another set of surrender documents similar to the ones.signed in Reims. They also sign the version of the documents translated into Russian and hold discussions.

After all, this was a very important deal since they told the commanders of all the armed forces, meaning ground, naval, and air force commanders, to come here. They had to come here and say, by signing the German Instrument of surrender, that they agreed to it and that the war had ended. All that took only fifteen minutes because there were no negotiations, no conditions were acceptable, and there weren’t any political talks. The only thing that mattered was for the forces to honor the agreement and admit they’d been defeated. They leave the venue after 15 minutes in the middle of the night. The Allied representatives enter this place at midnight. When they all come, Zhukov sits in the middle and delivers a short speech. The German representatives sit at the table next to theirs and are supposed to do the signing. The Allied envoys sign the documents too and then the Germans take off. And that’s how the Second World War in Europe comes to an end. It all happened right here in this hall.

US Army footage

After the last war the German general squad continued to punch. Today not the general squad but the entire German officers' core would be dissolved and they would forever prevent from platting another German attempt to world conquest.

Karl-Heinz Hoffmann, Politician

Anyone who could prove they were opposed to the Third Reich, would be appointed to a (government) position. For instance, Okstein came in a British military uniform as a war correspondent. Or Willy Brandt came in the Norwegian uniform also as a war reporter. Back then, newspapers would have to have a license, and they’d have to apply for one with the American commander. So they were really curious to know who the applicants were. They were either people from labor camps, or leftists, or church resistance groups. They weren’t all Jewish. They continue to hold key (government) positions today. They’re even involved in the press.

Narration:

The terms of the Surrender agreement would have practically handed the control of Germany over to the west or the Allied nations. Some of those requirements were as follows:

1- Appropriation of all of Germany’s economic resources to pay damages to the Allied nations suffered during the war.

2- The authority to set up representative offices, military bases and diplomatic offices anywhere in Germany.

3- The German police and courts weren’t qualified to hear cases to do with the military personnel, advisors, or anyone from the Allied countries.

4- The German government was also required to meet the costs of the Allies’ military presence in its soil

Jurge Moore, Manager of berlin Museum

In both parts, I mean both in the Democratic Republic of Germany and the Federal Republic of the Germany, if there were an accident, for instance if a German ran over a Soviet or American kid, the military police would show up on the scene instantly. Actually, I could tell you about one such accident involving my own family. I grew up in the south which was controlled by the Americans. We ran over a young American who jumped in front of our car out of nowhere. The German police came to the scene. Within minutes the American military police appeared. Their presence meant the German police had no power now, no authority to say anything or to take any action.

Narration

The individuals, who sign the capitulation papers on behalf Germany, are all executed by the Allies upon returning to Berlin on May 23. In the eyesof the Allies, they weren’t the official representatives of the German people, but their signatures turned the capitulation papers into a legal document and made it lawful for it to be implemented.

Interview continued

On May 9, 1945 German generals move to Flensburg, the seat of the Third Reich. But on May 23, they were all taken prisoners of war. In 1946, the International War Crimes Tribunal” was held in Nuremburg. At the tribunal, field Marshal Wilhelm Keitelwas tried, sentenced to death and hanged as a war criminal

Narration

The Allied forces didn’t suffice to the German surrender. Soon they decided that such a thing as a German government shouldn’t exist. As a result, they divided Germany into four zones independently and autonomously in the zone it was occupying.

Interview continued

So the war ends, but only a transitional management system is devised. The foundation of it all had been laid in February of 1945 at the Yalta Conference. It was then when the heads of state of the three triumphant nations: The United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union decided that Germany had to be occupied, that there shouldn’t exist an independent German government after the surrender, and that every occupying nation had to be able to act independently and autonomously in the zone it was occupying.

US Army footage

In the beginning, many people escaped in broad daylight by jumping out of windows facing the western sector of the city. Our firemen were there to help. We remember the woman being held by communist guards to prevent her from joining her family. They even threw tear gas at those who were below ready to catch her.

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Karl-Heinz Hoffmann, Politician

In the immediate aftermath of the war, when we had no government organization, the head of the German intelligence organization, ReinhardGehlen, confronted the Russians and secretly handed all the information and documents he had on the Russians to the Americans. The Americans didn’t have much intel on the Russians. The German Intelligence Organization worked for the Americans. In fact, that’s how this organization was formed. It was an American establishment with German staff. Later on it made cosmetic changes and renamed itself Bundesnachrichtendienst: the German Intelligence Service (BND)—A German organization. But in reality, nothing changed. The Americans were still in charge and the intelligence gathered would end up in the Americans’ hands. The only difference now was that Germany had to cover the costs. The organization didn’t belong to the Germans, it only had German employees.

Interview continued

At the same time though, there was the Allied Control Council in which, it was said, the members jointly decided matters that affected Germany as a whole. In the months before the war ended, France joined the Allied nations as the fourth victor in the war, and Germany was divided into four Occupation Zones. That’s how the Allied Control Authority got its four members. It was in operation until March 1948, before disagreements among the four member states led to the start of the Cold War. The Soviet Union walks out of the Council basically shutting down the institution since the Control Council could only act with the agreement of all four members.

Every occupying power tried to exert its own policies in the zone it has under occupation. Although it first started in 1948, it led to the partition of Germany.

Narration

So Germany was divided into West Germany and East Germany. The Cold War polarized the country between the Allies in the west and Soviets in the east. This is where the barriers marking the border begin. Going further means risking life and limp. Behind what is known as the inner-wall is a place an average East German citizen may never enter. A heavily-guarded strip of border land . This is what it looks like at the start of the 1980s. The fortifications are continually reinforced and expanded. The area along the restricted zone is patrolled not only by soldiers but also by the East German police and other watchful agents. Preventing people from fleeing communist East Germany is an elaborate and expensive operation.

Narration

In 1955, the Allied powers sign certain agreements following which the Berlin Wall is erected. That is the last agreement that the Allies draw up to decide the fate of Germany, an agreement valid until the year 1990.

US Army footage

Twelve-thousand people escaped in the first year of the war. On a Friday afternoon, they shot an 18 year old boy as he was trying to scale the wall into West Berlin. They let him bleed to death on their side of the wall. Then they took his lifeless body, and took him away.

Karl-Heinz Hoffmann, Politician

We thought the Russians were evil and that the Americans were certainly good. But over the years I became skeptical of America. In the first few years of my life in West Germany, I stayed away from politics because I was frustrated. We’d see our fellow party members get arrested and questioned about the year they had joined the party in. For instance, if you had joined before 1933, your punishment would have been more severe. So we decided to stay out of politics.

Narration

In the West, the country’s transitional constitution was drafted; a simplified version of the constitution. The transitional constitution prevented the concentration of power in the executive or other branches of government. Drafted under the supervision of the Allied countries at the end of World War II, it is still acting as the German constitution today.

Natalia Narotchnitskaya, Politician

The constitution also doesn’t allow a referendum to be held. International bodies trying to limit the reach of international policies, won’t allow Germany and other European countries to have full independence. After the war, the Anglo-Saxons worked very hard to prevent Germany from ever having any decision-making powers. Today, all those who talk about conservative values are nicknamed “fascists”. That’s terrible and I’m afraid that Europe might lose its European values. To us and many other nations and civilizations, the ancient European civilization used to be fascinating, but that’s not the case anymore.

Narration

The German Socialist Party, one of the fiercest critics of the country's incumbent government, has staged a demonstration outside the parliament building and the chancellor's palace.

Member of the German Socialist Party

Germany hasn’t signed any peace treaties since World War II. That’s why it isn’t free and independent. We are being controlled.

By whom!?

By the Federal Republic of Germany.

What is the Federal Republic of Germany?

It is a corporate structure involving numerous companies, and sitting at the top right now is Chancellor Angela Merkel.

Are you saying this country’s economic interests are steering the German Federal Republic?!

Yes, that’s absolutely right. And that’s why, based on the things written on our ID cards, we are the employees of this organization, of this corporate structure, of this management system. We aren’t recognized as individuals, we have no personal IDs.

You mean the occupying powers have maintained their presence here?!

Yes, that’s correct!

Just like in the past, the Allied military rules are implemented.

Narration

The United States builds twenty-one military bases in cities across Germany, stationing thousands of troops in them. The American Air Force puts up a heavy presence, and a spying network including wiretapping systems are installed in different areas across the country.

In 1990, the occupation of Germany ended. But when it comes to American troops, the situation is still like the past.

All these years, the costs of the American and Western military presence in Germany have been paid for by the German government. The costs ran up to 4.5 billion Marks in 1950 alone. Until 1956, the US military received an annual 300 million dollars from Germany for its military presence in the country. The Soviet army at the same time, didn’t miss out on competing with its American counterpart, receiving annually an estimated 622 to 812 million marks from the West German government between 1970 and 1984. (Costs table)

The Western powers needed housing units for their troops. Funded by the German government, the Allies built residentialunits to house the American troops.

Karl-Heinz Hoffmann, Politician

The Americans had everything we didn’t. Not everyone had a car. But they all owned Cadillacs and money. They would splurge on things making everyone wonder how they could have so much money. In general, we got along with them. Unlike the Russians, they were more sociable. For instance, they’d come to entertainment places, donned Bayern caps, and you know…they were regular folks. But the Russians didn’t have permission to leave the barracks. We had to learn Russian in school but never did we get the chance to talk to an actual Soviet.

US Army footage

Many of those with families live in apartment buildings and totally American communities. Throughout western Germany are more than three-hundred thousand Americans, the largest American population outside the United States. The needs of a soldier’s wife and children are met with special facilities. Justices’ own needs are met with top weapons and equipment. Servicing the civilian requirements of the defenders of West Germany are all the stores and gas stations which would be found in a typical community back in the United States.

They put up a wall here that ran all the way to Friedrichsdorf railway. The Houses are still standing, and well that’s all.

Where was the wall exactly?!

This whole street had been walled off. You couldn’t cross over. You’d have to ask the guards at the gate for permission to enter. But they would rarely allow you to cross.

Narration

There are still eighty-thousand US troops stationed on German soil, all paid for by the German government. In 2013, the budget allocated to the foreign troops in Germany, most of them American, was 56.1 million euros.

The American military presence in Germany has had a far-reaching cultural impact on German society. The thousands of McDonald’s and Burger Kings, and the huge American goods market, are among the corollaries of the continued American military presence here. American Rock Star, Elvis Presely, spent the glorious days of his singing career as a GI in Germany.

US Army footage

Narration

He had thousands of young German fans at the time, who dreamed of going to his concert. They still lay flowers outside the house where he lived.

Natalia Narotchnitskaya, Politician

After the war a propaganda campaign was launched to introduce the new generation of Germans as citizens of the world not of a country; a doctrine that has you say, “We aren’t the children if our land, we’re citizens of the world, with no culture, religion, politics or national history.”

Jorge Moore, Manager of berlin Museum

Don’t you think the occupying powers in the West, especially the United States, sought their economic interests?!

No doubt they were after their own interests, but based on a different policy. I have to say, their economic system worked differently. The ruling economic system in the west was market capitalism and the Marshall Plan was saying: We’ll make ourselves not a rival but a partner so we can cooperate and transact with him. An economic partner, who also has some personal things to offer.

Narration:

The German economy, one of the most powerful in the world, collapsed. For the Allies, that was nowhere near ideal. By executing industrial projects and with the participation of the occupiers , the German economy started to develop again. The only difference was though, that this time it had big imposed partners working alongside it, with whom it had to share the benefits. During the economic boom, this partnership was beneficial for the Germans.

Member of the German Socialist Party

Do you know who MrDruggy is?!

No

They call him Old Man!

Oh, I remember now!

The previous executive director. But he’s still on the Bilderberg Group’s payroll. Bilderberg, is the highest and most important member of the Council on Foreign Relations (CRF). Everybody is there, all the important people. Mrs Merkel is the head of the Atlantik-Brücke, (Atlantic Bridge), an association that views world nations as puppets whom it’s holding the strings of and exploiting as slaves.

Continue Interveiw

First of all we don’t have a government. Second of all, the Federal Republic of Germany is a colony of American Nazis. Our vote doesn’t count.

Continue Interveiw

But I think many of the people in this country don’t even know what we’re talking about here. Because of the media blackout, a lots of the people in this country have no access to the information that we have at our disposal here. That’s because they’re not as observant and curious as we are. They aren’t looking for new things because they have no interest in them.

Continue Interveiw

No! In Europe you can say whatever you want but it never gets reflected anywhere. They arrested this man’s son, Manfred. One of the ladies we are friends with…who just left…she isn’t allowed to see her own child. Another one of my friends has been admitted to a psychiatric hospital against his own will. Together, we have lodged eight complaints with the International Criminal Court.

Narration:

In 1990, East and West Germany reunified to form a sovereign, autonomous country making all the agreements involving the Allied nations null and void.

Narration:

But the government behavior spoke of secret deals it has signed with the West that it feels obligated to honor.

Jürgen Elsässer, Journalist

Following the German reunification in 1990, the government was now considered independent. And all the accords with the Allies were off. What still remainsis the secret deals that an advisor to former President Willy Brandt claimed to exist. But the fact is that noneof those secret deals is valid anymore because the United Nation has to be informed of all such agreements, otherwise they are worthless. So speaking from a legal point of view, Germany has been autonomous since 1990. From the standpoint of international law, secret deals have no validity whatsoever. But what the law says and what is actually happening are completely different. In fact, Germany is an American colony. Legally it might not be the case, but politically it is, because the political parties that have been created, and the regions where those political parties are active, all do America’s bidding.

Karl-Heinz Hoffmann, Politician

Knowledge is power and so if you know everything about everyone, you are powerful. And when you are powerful, you want to keep them under control, you won’t allow anyone to even think of independence. It all starts in school years. But Germany has come along way now and looks like the German Democratic Republic. At school back then, we’d sometimes have to fill in questionnaires about our families. For instance, we’d have to say what our grandfather had done in the war. They’d gather that information and analyze it. Today too, 17 or 18 year old school goers are required to write essays about the federal government, the parliament or the Third Reich and say what they think of them. The essays are collected and sent off to the intelligence service. That means, they know what these youngsters think before they mature. They can predict if someone will have a political career in the future or not. When someone joins a political party at the age of 25, they’ll know what they wrote in their school essay.

Narration:

During the presidency of Bush Junior, the American troops’ mission in Europe and the world changed. Spy operations were followed by secret operations and the kidnapping of suspects, and American allies were no exception to the rule. One of those operations that turned into a political scandal, was the abduction of Khalid al-Masri. He’s a German citizen of Lebanese origin. He was on this way to Macedonia for vacation when he was abducted by the CIA as member of Al-Qaeda, transferred to Afghanistan, and tortured for five months. But eventually the CIA realized it had made a mistake and released him. When they realized he was innocent, he was flown to Albania and dumped on a back-road without so much as an apology. Al-Masri’s futile attempts at receiving justice in the US are well-known, but the classified diplomatic cables recently released by wiki-leaks show that the US also warned German authorities not to allow a local investigation into his kidnapping. The closest he’s come to justice is an arrest warrant for 13 CIA agents issued by prosecutors in Spain, a country the agents entered on forged passports.

AL -Masri:

During the whole time I was on the bed like a mummy.

I was not allowed to move freely, even when I had to go the bathroom.

The curtains were always closed.

That was very exhausting for me...and I became more afraid the longer it lasted.

I could not understand why I was held for so long.

And why they refused contact with my family the German embassy, or an interpreter.

After approximately 7 days, an assistant came into my room.

I asked him, What is this about? and he said if I were to say that I am part of Al Qaeda...

I would not be allowed to stay in Skopje and would be deported back to Germany.

I refused to say this. He tried over and over again to convince me of that.

I told him he could deport me without me saying I am a member of Al Qaeda, because I am not Al Qaeda.

I was then brought to my cell. the next day I was interrogated by a Lebanese man ,also dressed in black ,with a south Lebanese accent.

And standing in the room were also 6 or 7disguised men, also all in black.

And he shouted at me and said ,You are in a country with no laws.

Do you know what this means? We can lock you up here for 20 years...or bury you, nobody would know,

The first months were very tough for me. I was worrying a lot about my family.

My wife doesn’t know her way around here very well and the kids are still very small.

And they were going through my head the whole time.

When you sit in that cell, it is dirty ,the space is very limited ,just form this situation in this cell alone ,you will go Ctazy.I told them what happened to me .

I have also showed them pictures of Guantanamo on the internet.

countries are occupied, people are killed, we cannot say anything...it’s a state secret.

They trample on freedom and justice, values and morals, with their feet.

And you have to keep quiet or you are a threat to international and national security.

Is this an argument? I will continue to fight for this case until we prevail...or until I die.

For morality, for principles, and for values .

Narration

NSA whistle-blower, Edward Snowden disclosed information about the American intelligence agencies wiretapping German phones, but we didn’t see a strong reaction from the German government. Many blame this silence on the secret deals between Berlin and Washington, but the question is why would the Americans tap Chancellor Merkel’s phone?

Michael More, Manager of berlin Museum

I personally am still in shock over the whole thing and over the fact that the German security and intelligence agencies as well as other relevant bodies have reacted so poorly and inadequately to this group. I’m not sure if this has anything to do with the Allied Occupied Zones in the past. I think this is more to do with the fact that the Federal Republic during the leadership of Adenauer, knowingly acceded to unification with the West. Mr. Kuehl and Mrs. Merkel keep mentioning Adenauer’s name. So if you looked at it as a political party policy, you’d conclude like me that Mrs Merkel is completely uncritical of American policies as if behind the scenes, German policies, of course I don’t wanna say anything about whether or not the policies of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) were like that or not, but it has always been flexible in the face of the western powers’ demands. The reason behind it is that they need their relationship and alliance with the West. The incidents that occurred in the 50s, of course back then they happened because there weren’t any alternatives, because West Germany’s independence wouldn’t have been possible without embracing Western alliances such as NATO and the European Union.

Jürgen Elsässer, Journalist

Just like it was revealed during the NSA spy scandal, Germany has been the target of American wiretapping practices than any other European country. On a single day in France in January 2013, two million worth of internet data was intercepted while the figure was seventy-million in the case of Germany.

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It is completely obvious that the focus is on Germany. In the words of Edward Snowden, even Mrs Merkel’s cellphone is tapped. This is an infringement on Germany’s sovereignty by the United States that considers itself as a partner. Still the German government does take any action. Things go on as before. No American agent is arrested, no American installations in Germany are shut down…they don’t even stop the negotiations over the free trade zone in the Atlantic Ocean. The German government is completely at America’s beck and call. So what the law says and what actually happens are two different things. You could even say Germany is a country occupation which is embarrassing. But it is not so in the eye of International law and on paper. Let me give you another example. In old Germany, chancellor Willy Brandt was in power from 1969 to 1974. The East-West divide was in its swing. Legally, Germany’s situation was terrible compared to the post-reunification time. Notwithstanding,However Willy Brandt did some extraordinary. In the Yom Kippur war in 1973 when the Americans wanted to send the Israelis food and other supplies using German ports, he wrote to Nixon and told him, “You are not allowed to use German ports.” Germany is a sovereign nation. We are a member of NATO but this isn’t a NATO war.”

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Germany had never been so independent than it was at that time. During Schroeder’s chancellorship, when Germany disagreed with the 2003 war Iraq, the Americans still used German ports and airports. Schroeder didn’t stop them. But back then, Brandt told them you have no right to do it. He did it because he was politically powerful, but the country’s legal situation was worse than it is today.

Let’s put it this way….Look at America’s new wars, like the drone war. When they have something like that, they don’t have to ask for anyone’s permission. Because they can, they have the drones, and the technical knowhow to direct them anywhere they want. It travels fast to wherever it’s directed, collect information and returns just as fast. This too is similar to the NSA scandal. The undersea cables, wherever they wanted them, or for instance in power stations in Britain. They can control all the internet lines around the world or listen to all mobile phone conversations. Everybody know how easy it is today to tap people’s phone conversations. Everybody knows it is possible and those who have the technology and the knowhow to do it, are doing it. They won’t ask for anyone’s permission. The only question here is, do you object to it, do you criticize it, do you let your people know about it or not?!

I expected my government to inform the people, to say, “Dear people, something like that exists and is being used, so be careful.” But instead of that, they kept saying there are passwords, the systems have been codified, and that everything is safe and secure. But that’s nonsense.

Yes, they are really afraid. But they’re afraid more than they should because American is not all the powerful. Hey can take small steps and like De Gaulle in the 60s say, “We won’t withdraw from NATO but from its military.” And that way they remain a member of the alliance but not as a military partner. This is a practical method. This is how we can start.

Narration

The worse kind of colonization is when the colonized nation considers itself free and independent and continues to live in that pleasant dream while everything from sovereignty to government to the private life of its citizens is controlled by the colonizer. Still the colonized nation considers that a real democracy. In such circumstances, the fight for freedom loses its meaning altogether.

   

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