Refugees: Journey through Europe

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For weeks, Macedonia has blocked passage into its territory for thousands of mainly Middle Eastern refugees seeking entry into Europe. The Macedonian government has said they cannot take the strain, echoing statements made by other European politicians. “The migrant crisis threatens Europe’s soul,” says the Italian Foreign Minister. But what about the refugees themselves? This film is a journey with the refugees from Macedonia through Serbia to find out how hard life is on the road, often with the sick and with children: this migration is of epic proportions. Originally, mostly from Syria, they are fleeing war largely fuelled by the West and are trying to reach Hungary, an EU member. Refugees are currently desperate to get into Hungary as soon as possible, as time is running out. Hungary is building a four-meter high fence along its borders. Hungarian Prime Minster Viktor Orban has likened refugees to terrorists and does not want them to pass through his country. Orban has been condemned for his unsympathetic treatment, but is Europe acting any differently?

TIME CODE: 00:00_05:00

SOUNDBITE [English] Viktor Orbán, Prime Minister of Hungary: “Moral human thing is to make clear: please don’t come.”

Narration: A apocalyptic scenes as Hungary closes its border to thousands of refugees trying to enter the European Union.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “These vans are taking people to the border and people are desperate to get on now, because with each passing day, with each hour, even the likelihood of Hungary closing its border increases.”

Narration: On this week In Focus we travel with refugees across the Hungarian border and ask whether Europe is failing with its migrant crisis .A apocalyptic scenes are now common on edges of Europe. Millions of people are fleeing war and poverty in the Middle East and Africa. Some have been lucky to make it into Europe; others have been met with brute force.The Serbian-Hungarian border; migrants attempt to break through the gates of the European Union. Hungarian riot police respond; Hungary has said that they are not welcome.

SOUNDBITE [English] Viktor Orbán, Prime Minister of Hungary: “The moral, human thing is to make clear, please don’t come. Why do you have to go from Turkey to Europe? Turkey is a safe country. Stay there. It is risky to come. We can’t guarantee that you will be accepted here. So morally and from the human point of view we will defend our border and keep our regulations we represent as human moral point also.”

Narration: In this program we will tell the story of desperate people who were stopped at nothing to reach the safety and opportunity of Europe, and, the European Union unprepared and uncertain on how to deal with the greatest refugee crisis since the Second World War. Earlier this year, I was reporting from the Greek island of Lesbos.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Every day, hundreds of migrants like these arrive on this island. This is just one of the many islands throughout the Mediterranean.”

Narration:These hundreds are now turned to thousands; coming ashore anyway they can. The image of young Ilan washed up on ashore on the island of Kos, shocked Europe. But, he’s just one of the dozens of children and over three thousand people who’ve been lost in the Mediterranean this year. Riots have now broken out of Lesbos’s port. Refugees are desperate to get to the mainland before the rest of Europe closes its borders. Like the migrants themselves, I now travel to Serbia; the last country before reaching the European Union. I started by meeting Zoran Cirjakovic, a political analyst, at Belgrade University.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “What has caused this refugee crisis?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Zoran Cirjakovic, Political Journalist: “It’s the general hopelessness and chaos that started with the Iraq invasion in 2003.”

Narration: The vast majority of refugees, easy to spot, walking around Belgrade streets are genuine refugees fleeing wars in the Middle East. Do you think Europe, and America, the West, expected this kind ofblowbackif you call it that?This refugee crisis;

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Do you think they expected it or put it in their plans?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Zoran Cirjakovic, Political Journalist: “No. I think that overwhelming number of actors or I would say that I’d be surprised if any actor contemplated relevant political actor in the West contemplated the possibility that hundreds of thousands are already, and soon millions of people will be on the gates of Munich.”

Narration: A park in Belgrade, refugees have been walking and bussing their way from Greece. But, it will take them over a week. Camille, working for local aid group is handing out supplies.

SOUNDBITE [English] Camille Tournebize, Activist, Migrant Solidarity Group: “Salam. Do you need some Shampoo for the baby? Shampoo? Also this weekend it was extremely cold; it was not extremely, but it was cold, and it was raining. So, we were bring raincoats and the sleeping bags; some tanks and blankets. We are also afraid what will be happening as the weather is getting worse in the next few days.”

Narration: Summer is at an end. One of the main fears for the authorities is weather changing for the worse. A man approaches us; he is Syrian and clearly hasn’t slept for a long time.

SOUNDBITE [Arabic] Refugee: “The war in Syria eats everything. There is nothing in Syria. Nothing. In Aleppo, Syria, eighty from out of one hundred building are destroyed.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Camille Tournebize, Activist, Migrant Solidarity Group: “How long are you on the journey? You came like a month ago, three weeks ago?”

SOUNDBITE [Arabic] Refugee: “About one month.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Camille Tournebize, Activist, Migrant Solidarity Group: “One month. Ok and you spent most of it in Turkey.”

Narration: Refugees are waiting for buses to take them to the north to the Serbian border.

TIME CODE: 05:00_10:00

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “You can get a sense of the scale of the crisis in this park. There are thousands of people, refugees, migrants, in this park, and neighboring parks at the moment. And, they only here a day or two, sometimes just hours as they leave north toward Budapest, thousands more arrive to take their place. What are the major worries and fears of the refugees here?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Camille Tournebize, Activist, Migrant Solidarity Group: “They are afraid that they will have to stay here, or they are afraid of the future. What will happen; how long it will take to get to the Germany or to the Austria?”

Narration: Since refugees weren’t staying in Belgradethere weren’t enough supplies for them. Food, soap or clothes were being donated by residents.

SOUNDBITE [English] Camille Tournebize, Activist, Migrant Solidarity Group: “We have around fifty volunteers that are going with us to the parks. And, that is people are applying; people with different backgrounds with different motivation, age. But, it’s something that we are really happy with. It is much more that we’ve expected.”

Narration: Since being in Belgrade it’s been clear how welcoming and how helpful Serbian people have been to the refugees. Many say that’s because they have experienced with war themselves. In 1999, as part of the Yugoslav war, NATO bombed Belgrade. The signs of destructionstill remain in the city, as a kind of reminder. Hundreds of thousands became refugees during the war. Many Serbs and Bosnians are still displaced; twenty years later. Here, pictures of thousands of Serbs killed in revenged attacks during and after the war, a reminder of the horror currently tearing much of the Middle East apart. Here are monuments for those killed in the attacks by NATO on Serbian television headquarters. Sixteen civilians were the only people killed; mostly make-up artists and technicians. Serbian people, more than most Europeans understand the horror of war and the difficulties faced by refugees. Rados Djurovic, a refugee worker, has in recent weeks been in thrust on frontline of Europe’s migrant crisis.

SOUNDBITE [English] Rados Djurovic, Director, Asylum Protection centre (Refugee): “We can welcome people but we can’t overtake the burden of the international, intercontinental migration and we can’t be the purgatory for the EU. Concerning the government, the government shares eight hundreds beds for all migrationwhich is of course inadequate. In that sense, the government and the state are not prepared. So, if the bad weather is coming, then we would expect a humanitarian crisis, I am afraid.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “The Serbian Prime Minister is currently in Germany speaking to Angela Merkel, trying to get financial and political support to help Serbia deal with this Serbia crisis. We now have to see Serbian Minister in charge of refugees. The Hungarian Prime Minister has said “don’t come to Europe”. What would you say to the Syrian refugees now: come, don’t come?”

SOUNDBITE [Serbian] Nenad Ivanisevic, Ministry of Labour, Serbian Government: “The Serbian policy is for all those who are affected by wars, not only Syrian refugees but also those from Iraq, Libya, and Eritrea are welcomed in Serbia. We are not going to build walls. Serbia is not going to close its borders and we are going to try to give necessary help to all unfortunate people.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter – Producer and Director of the Program: “I asked the minister, what he thought of the Hungarian government building a fence just over Serbia’s border.”

SOUNDBITE [Serbian] Nenad Ivanisevic, Ministry of Labour, Serbian Government: “No wall has ever stopped anyone, neither The Great Wall of China nor the Berlin Wall. This wall is not going to stop these people who don’t have an alternative. Routes are maybe going to change, people who are arriving in Serbia are maybe going to go to Croatia, Bosnia, or Romania. They will maybe continue to go to Hungary but this needs a European answer as to what is going to happen with them.”

Narration: Although dismissal of the fence, the Serbian Government is worried. If Europe closes its borders, Serbia might become purgatory for refugee and winter is coming. The next morning we drove to the border. Countless refugees were making their own way. Those who couldn’t get buses, walked. Well, like these lucky few, got their by horse and carts. The whole border area close to the roads were filled with these bizarre scenes. Syrian, Afghan, and Iraqi refugees trudging their way along the roads in Southern Europe. A camp close to the border, outside people desperately are trying to get on buses to get them to the final stretch by the only crossing leftopen to the Hungary. Ahmed is taking a much needed rest before he carries on. He is from Syria.

TIME CODE: 10:00_15:00

SOUNDBITE [Arabic] Ahmed, Syrian Refugee: “It’s not like the beginning of the war. There is now no electricity, no food, no water. Everything is cut off; people can’t go to school or university. There is nothing for us there.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter – Producer and Director of the Program: “So how is the journey being here? How did you get here?”

SOUNDBITE [Arabic] Ahmed, Syrian Refugee: “I came like the rest of the people here. I’ve been walking for the last 24 hours. I have had no water.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “The most serious problem in this camp is health care. I’ve been approached by a few different men asking for help with their children who are ill. Obviously the health care system in Syria is completely broken down and the long arduous journey across Europe has been very damaging on the health of many.”

Narration: Privately, eight workers here are damning the United Nations and the international aid organizations which are almost nowhere to be found. Despite this crisis, clearly been seen foreseeableweeks and month ago, only local charities have mobilized.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “And, is everybody here in this camp are passing through genuine refugees from Syria?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kemal El Chairi, Interpreter, Balkan Center for Migration: “No, most of them are; but there are a lot of people that are just using this situation; so-called economic migrants. People that are from Arab-speaking countries; but, they are not war-stricken countries, like Tunisia, Algeria. The countries that are not war-stricken, plus you’ve got people from Bangladesh, Pakistan; there are a few Indians, and from Central Africa; the Southern Africa. Yes, they are using the situation.”

SOUNDBITE [Arabic] Refugee: “I want to tell you something. Everybody here, seventy out of one hundred are not from Syria. I am from Syria but not everyone is.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Where are they from?”

SOUNDBITE [Arabic] Refugee: “Iraq, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Egyptian, Libya, Tunisia, Africa, Somalia, Sudan”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Algeria.”

SOUNDBITE [Arabic] Refugee: “Algeria. We don’t know.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Zoran Cirjakovic, Political Journalist: “World is one. In one way, more than ever. In one way, you can’t stop the millions of desperate people whose lives were crippled by this arrogance from wanting to run away from a despotic situation; which is not just Syria. There is Yemen, there is Nigeria. Half of Sub-Saharan Africa. These are suspended lives of people who would live tomorrow if there is no Sahara Desert in between.”

Narration: In late 2014, I was reporting from Calais, in North of France. The thousands of refugees were camped out in what is now called “New Jungle”. Each night, hundreds of young men try to jump into Lorries to get across the channel into England. These refugees are mostly from conflicts in Africa or fleeing poverty in Somalia and Eritrea.

SOUNDBITE [English] Zoran Cirjakovic, Political Journalist: “Because the main route of this … is not just war, it is this total hopelessness. You always need to look at everything together; from climate change, to this chronic instability, unemployment. It will be in any way easier if it is just wrong wars. The routes are, you know, the routes are so deep.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter – Producer and Director of the Program: “These vans are taking people to the border and people are desperate to get on now; because with each passing day, or each passing hour, even the likelihood of Hungary closing its border increases. When you speak to migrants or refugees, what are they main problems? What are the main things that they need from Europe and complain about?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kemal El Chairi, Interpreter, Balkan Center for Migration: “The main problem that they complain about is Hungary; the crossing of the border. The Hungry, the Hungarian government and their treatment and the infamous fingerprint.”

Narration: EU law states that whichever EU country, a refugee first enters there; he or she must stay. Therefore refugees are scared of being processed and fingerprinted until they reach their preferred destination. Outside the camp, refugees became tired of trying to piling into the buses, and instead decided to walk to the border; some try to get a free ride. Most of the refugees we talked to were exhausted. They had walked for miles, days with little sleep. Many carrying their children or their worldly belongings with them. Apocalyptic scenes like this shocked Europe that are now becoming normal.Some stopped for a rest on their way. Some pose for photos. Many asked me: what they’d find at the border. Was it still open? Were they going to be fingerprinted? I told them I didn’t know. The policy of the Hungarian authorities was constantly changing. Finally we reach the border.

TIME CODE: 15:00_20:00

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “There is sad situation here at the border. We have hundreds of refugees who want to cross. We have couple of Hungarian police officers and here are some Hungarian workers building a fence in order to stop them from coming.”

Narration: These refugees were lucky. They were amongst the last to be able to cross unimpeded over the border. They closed it a few days later with predictable results.

SOUNDBITE [English] Viktor Orbán, Prime Minister of Hungary: “The point is the responsibility. So, if we would create and imagine, an imagination or an impression, that just come because we are ready to accept everybody; that would be a moral failure. Because this is not the case. So, the moral human thing is to make clear, please don’t come. Why you have to go from Turkey to Europe? Turkey is a safe country. Stay there. It is risky to come. We can’t guarantee that you will be accepted here. So morally and from the human point of view we, who defend the border and keep the regulations we represent, a human moral point also. Because we would not like to falsify the dreams of the people. We make clear, please don’t come.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Building a fence. Are we building a fence?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Rados Djurovic, Director, Asylum Protection centre (Refugee): “Yeah. We are already tired of commenting them. But, we are not receiving other such comments from the EU on the high political level. Hearing you mind building the fence in Europe is something that is not first efficient and then it is leaving strong message of acting against the communitarian principles of freedom of movement and goods.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Hungary stops the border. If Germany and Austria stop their border, which they say they are going to do, where are the people going to go?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kemal El Chairi, Interpreter, Balkan Center for Migration: “I can tell you there is a phrase that is going on between us here. People are like water. You can’t stop it. You can either channel it. Whatever obstacle you put, they are going to break it. They will find a way. I am sure they will find a way.”

Narration: Hungary is now made it illegal to cross or to damage the fence. Huge numbers fleeing war in their own country have now been arrested in Europe.

SOUNDBITE [English] Rados Djurovic, Director, Asylum Protection centre (Refugee): “It’s really struggle among the refugees and Hungarian police. They want to leave, and the Hungarian police is trying to stop them in any means available. So, this is like chasing people over the fields; over the flat terrain, and it is really something that is really disturbing when you are witnessing all that; because the impression is that you are in the period before the Second World War, and then you have the hunt for the cats of the Hungarian police. This is what the impression is for the common citizen passing by.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Do you think the European Union has handled or is handling this in the right manner?”

SOUNDBITE [Serbian] Nenad Ivanisevic, Ministry of Labour, Serbian Government: “The EU has to come up with a common policy, a common answer. This is the greatest challenge since the beginning of the EU. This is the biggest migration since the Second World War. We expect Europe to have a common approach when it comes to aid. That means to help Serbia and Macedonia. It is not right that Europe helps Greece and Italy, and not Macedonia and Serbia. The European Commission has to find an answer what to do with a million people that might arrive or pass through Europe.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter – Producer and Director of the Program: “Who do you expect to pay for that? If there is going to be thousands of migrants here? Is it a Serbian problem? Is it a Hungarian problem? Is it a European Union problem? Is it a United Nations problem? Who do you expect to pay for?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Rados Djurovic, Director, Asylum Protection centre (Refugee): “I would say it’s the European problem. It includes European Union, but it includes our country as well; in their own capacities. I would say that Serbia can’t pay enough count in these circumstances with the heavy economic crisis in Serbia, and the rate of unemployment which is really high. Serbia can’t pay for that. There is no money for that. But Serbia needs a strong financial support from the EU.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Zoran Cirjakovic, Political Journalist: “Europe never had a backup strategy for anything. They never thought this could fail. Is it Europe? Is it refugees? They really thought history is over; not just in some declarations. Their whole institutional, legal, political infrastructure cannot deal with a serious failure. Because they think, they developed a perfect system.”

Narration: Despite the infrastructure of a number of European States already being overrun by the sheer number of refugees,the major crisis for Europe is not how many refugees have already come, but how many refugees are trying to come, but have not yet arrived.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter – Producer and Director of the Program: “Is it going to get worse, do you think?”

TIME CODE: 20:00_25:00

SOUNDBITE [English] Kemal El Chairi, Interpreter, Balkan Center for Migration: “You mean more people are going to come? Yes, sure. My personal opinion is yes. I’ve heard rumors; I don’t think they are rumors. Let’s say 90%, around 2.5 million people are waiting in Turkey to across. You’ve got Lebanon, you’ve got Jordan. You’ve got people from Syria that are trying to come. Iraq as well, let’s say.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Zoran Cirjakovic, Political Journalist: “The pressure is huge and these walls are falling and the west will have to deal probably, I wouldn’t call that a pessimistic estimate with millions, and millions of refugees.”

Narration: The EU knew that this wave of refugees was coming. They could see gathering pace in Greece and in Macedonia. Yet, they’ve been completely unable or unwilling to prepare. European States argue about quotas and about policy. But, it seems there is a long way from agreeing on a united position. Some countries build walls; other wade them through. All the while, thousands upon thousands more arrive on the Greek islands.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter – Producer and Director of the Program: “Do you have enough, or are you worried about future, worried about more people coming, and you don’t have enough?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Camille Tournebize, Activist, Migrant Solidarity Group: “We are very worried of what will be happening here. Because, this is not sustainable. And the system cannot be on the small organization that is going and on the people who are individually bringing help. So, soon it will be very hard to manage.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kemal El Chairi, Interpreter, Balkan Center for Migration: “This camp, as I’ve said, improvement is always welcome. As you see, the tents, there are tents, but for example, thirty people will be in one tent.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter – Producer and Director of the Program: “And when the cold comes?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kemal El Chairi, Interpreter, Balkan Center for Migration: “I don’t know. When the cold comes, they have got blankets. But I am not sure when the temperature gets more extreme what is going to happen. I really don’t know.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter – Producer and Director of the Program: “Are you worried of what’s going to happen?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kemal El Chairi, Interpreter, Balkan Center for Migration: “Of course, very worried. Because, this location as you see is in Balkan. The winds are strong. The winter in North of Serbia is strong. It’s severe. So, I’m really even afraid to think.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter – Producer and Director of the Program: “And finally, I’ve asked this question a lot in Greece and elsewhere. And, I’ve always get the same reply. “There is no solution”. Is there solution to this whole migration crisis?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Zoran Cirjakovic, Political Journalist: “Only in the country of the origin. If the countries like Syria, Libya, and others would maintain peace and order would reestablish. In that sense, it would stop.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter – Producer and Director of the Program: “That’s not going to happen.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Zoran Cirjakovic, Political Journalist: “That’s not probably going to happen, but this is what we are seeing. We see a lot of interest in the military zone, a lot of conflicts. And when you talk with the refugees, you realize that most of them are from Syria and they would never try to leave their countries if they would have peace and order. In that sense, I think that it is the responsibility of Europe and European countries to activate more in establishing peaceful process. It’s all over Europeans’ external borders.”

Narration: Wars in the Middle East have precipitated this crisis and just as those wars have had a knock-on effect, so will the refugee crisis marching along railway tracks and into Europe. The far right is rising throughout the continent. One thing European leaders do agree on is that this migrant crisis will eventually affect everyone on the continent and change Europe forever.

SOUNDBITE [English] Zoran Cirjakovic, Political Journalist: “People, when they are desperate, there is no walls that could stop them on their way.”

Narration: Refugees trying to evade Hungarian police as they scamper into the European Union.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “I just had a tip-off from some local Hungarian Police that there are some refugees trying to cross the fence a little bit further down. So we are going to take a look. On this week's Infocus we are on the Hungarian border as desperate refugees try to make it into a country which doesn't want them.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Camille Tournebize, Activist, Migrant Solidarity Group: “The Hungarian government has made it very clear that it does not want refugees to come to Hungary. It does not want refugees to be in Hungary.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Viktor Orbán, Prime Minister of Hungary: “The moral, human thing is to make clear, please don’t come. Why do you have to go from Turkey to Europe? Turkey is a safe country. Stay there. It is risky to come.”

Narration: Hungary's President set out his country’s position on the migrant crisis. While some have been welcoming refugees in Europe, Viktor Orbán speaks for many. Europe remains confused and divided on how to proceed. It’s a day before Hungary closes its border. We had a makeshift camp a few hundred meters into Hungarian territory. Tens of thousands of migrants have been passing through here over the last few days.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “It's about mid-day here, and it is rather absurd scene. The weather has turned foul; its cold, and rainy. There are hundreds of migrants, refugee tents. A dozen News groups with their Satellite vans. Aid organizations, handing out food and water and the rubbish is piling up. And all the time, more and more refugees continue to trudge along into the camp”

TIME CODE: 25:00_30:00

Narration: It's still early. There is only a trickle of refugees so far. Those that do come, or those who have been camping here overnight are put on buses and taken to reception centers. A heavy police presence keeps order. Many refugees are scared to be taken to the centers, as they think they will have that fingerprints taken. And, therefore they will have to stay in Hungary and not be able to move on to Germany or elsewhere. Away from the camps, we noticed a strange sight.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “We are just getting into evening now and about half kilometer away from the camp, in just over the Hungarian border, you can see people from beyond this hedgerow literally hiding, waiting until the coast is clear. And when it is, when the police are gone, they run. Sprint, and you can see them now.”

Narration: These refugees will have a tough time walking through the night or camping down in the cold or in the rain. One migrant was killed later that evening hit by a car crossing this road. The next morning we set off to take a look at Europe's newest high security fence. In one sense it is impressive, stretching across the entire border with Serbia. But, it is also relatively easy to breach. It wasn't hard to find evidence of legal crossings. The fence patrolled by the police and increasingly by the army. Although it next to impossible to keep it dramaticallysealed.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “We just had a tip-off from some local Hungarian police that there are some refugees trying to cross the fence a little bit further down. We are going to take a look.”

Narration: We spotted some refugees to the fence, bizarrely nearby the seemingly innocuous point on the border. There was a door. It was open. So, we walked through; illegally. crossing ourselves into Serbia. The migrants are from Pakistan. They've been walking for days; they’re cold and soaking wet. They told us they were trying to evade police as they crossed into Hungary. And, they were surprised as we were to find an open door. They were trying to reach Germany. We wished them luck and left.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: The young Pakistani men we just spoke to, were waiting for gaps in a police patrol. They were also waiting for us to leave before they cross; and not just them, they told us that there were around fifteen others hiding in the bushes next to them.”

Narration: The fences meant as a deterrent that represents a thinly veiled message to the millions of refugees in the Middle East dreaming of coming to Europe. Nearby we spoke to a local Hungarian farmer.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: So, what do you think of the fence?”

SOUNDBITE [Hungarian] Farmer: “The fence is useless. It doesn't achieve anything. Every day over 150 refugees pass by here. So, it doesn't achieve anything.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: And, well, do you mind all the migrants passing through here?”

SOUNDBITE [Hungarian] Farmer: “No, no, I don't mind. We give them water if they need it. And we tell them which way they should go. They don't hurt anybody.”

Narration: Budapest, Hungary's capital, the hundreds of thousands of migrants just another city to pass through on their way to Germany, at the train station, Hungarian are proving more welcoming than their government. Free foods and clothes are handed out; Wi-Fi and phone charges, even haircuts are often free of charge.

SOUNDBITE [English] Camille Tournebize, Activist, Migrant Solidarity Group: “To give you an idea; in 2012, and in the years before, the number of asylum seekers arriving in Hungary were around two thousand every year, and then in 2012, in 2013, there were 18 thousand asylum seekers in Hungary. In 2013, there were 43 thousand; and now since the start of the year, they were 150 thousands asylum seekers. So, it means only the people who have been registered; which means even more people came in, but who have not registered.”

SOUNDBITE [Hungarian] Viktor Orbán, Prime Minister of Hungary: “The supply is nearly endless. We can see how many of them are coming. And if we look at the demographics, we can see that these people have more children than our communities. Mathematics tells you that this will lead to a Europe where our way of life will end up in a minority or at least face a very serious challenge.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Helsinki: “The government sources that are ready to employ.”

Narration: A press conference from the Helsinki Committee, a human rights organization critical of Orban’s position

SOUNDBITE [English] Marta Pardav, Co-President, Hungarian Helsinki Committee: “The Hungarian government has made it very clear that it does not want refugees to come Hungary. It does not want refugees to be in Hungary. So, Hungary is clearly abdicating its protection responsibilities. It will be and has already been saying: no to Syrians. This is clearly very evident that this is not right.”

TIME CODE: 30:00_35:00

Narration: Despite hard-line policies and condemnations from some quarters other European leaders have been mute in that criticism of Orbán. Many suspect it suits other European leaders to have a strong man like Orbán at Europe's frontiers.

SOUNDBITE [English] Camille Tournebize, Activist, Migrant Solidarity Group: “He has really racist and xenophobic policy. And, he didn't do anything to try to help. He just completely negated for fact that this is responsibility that everybody should share; and that there is a crisis and you should help people. And he just completely negated that and he is just trying to get more far-right people to vote for him.”

Narration: Refugees trying to force their way pass the Hungarian border guards. But, watch the women in blue holding a camera. She can clearly be seen in kicking out the refugees as they pass. Here, she is again this time tripping a man carrying his child. The camera women was immediately sacked and since apologized. But, many regard her action as symptomatic of Hungary's xenophobic treatment of refugees. A few days after we were at the border, the crossing were closed and the inevitable happened. Refugees tried to break through and Hungarian police responded. We spoke to refugees near the Hungarian border with Austria about their experiences in the country.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “In Hungary, was it difficult with the police?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Refugee: “It was very difficult with the police. We are four, five days at Hungary. And, it is very, very difficult for us at Hungary.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Why?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Refugee:There, the police is not good”

SOUNDBITE [English] Refugee:We walked eight hours in the woods at night and we see bad guys.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Hungarian?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Refugee: “Yes. And down they called Sajad, and catching us. Catching me and my friend, When we see the police, we run away from the street or through the woods. We are always scared about being caught by the police.”

Narration: Istvan Lovas is a journalist, supporter of his government’s policies.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Hungary's putting fences up. Hungary said no more. But,”

SOUNDBITE [English] Istvan Lovas, Journalist: “Do you know how many countries have fences on their border? Greece, Bulgaria, Spain and so many other countries are building, like the Ukraine. Baltic countries. Walls are going up; but only Hungary is to blame.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Marta Pardav, Co-President, Hungarian Helsinki Committee: “It is, I think a very intentional government policy.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “To say what?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Marta Pardav, Co-President, Hungarian Helsinki Committee: “To deter people from the idea of seeking protection in Hungary or even passing through Hungary. The Hungarian government, basically it appears not to care about the impact of this very restrictive or rejecting policy on the neighboring countries of Hungary or on Europe as a whole.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Refugees sure are coming. Do you think it is going to change Europe? Angela Merkel said: it is going to change Germany. Do you worry the amounts by this year; how do you think it's going to change or affect Europe?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Istvan Lovas, Journalist: “Absolutely, it is going to change, and I think vice-versa; that is the reason that Qatar, Oman, Abu Dhabi and all those States, they wouldn't let millions of Christians into their countries. Just as they don't want even Shi'ites to go there. You see, and of course if you have different people coming to you then there is going to be a clash of civilizations as we have experienced in so many cases in Europe; and I think that is going to be a very sad story.”

Narration: Hungary and the EU's increasingly tough policies are likely to lead to more deaths. In August, 71 people, including 8 women and 4 children, were found dead in a lorry in Austria. They suffocated after paying people smugglers to get them into Europe. The Croatian border; refugees are like water. You could stop the flow at some point, but they'll find another way. We have heard that phrase for many times. As Hungary closed its border, refugees found other ways. Ways often far more dangerous.

TIME CODE: 35:00_40:00

SOUNDBITE [English] Marta Pardav, Co-President, Hungarian Helsinki Committee: “The EU’s policies are forcing them to choose the other option which is extremely expensive, very risky, sometimes you know, it’s even fatal, the smugglers. There is not enough emphasis on making sure that people can come to Europe in a safe and legal way. There are no safe options for people to come to Europe even if they are fleeing war.”

Narration: A train pulling into the last stop inside Hungary. A couple of kilometers short of the Austrian border; refugees ask policemen which way they should go? They are frightened as they simply don’t know what will happen to them.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Many of the migrants have come up to ask me questions as soon as they got off the train .first of all are they going to be fingerprinted by the police? Are they rounded up by the police and put into camps? I said: No, they are free to walk to the border. Then they asked me: where is the border and how far is it? You know, the border is two, three kilometers. So you walk to the border; the Austrian border.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Refugee: “How many kilometers?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Two, three kilometers, four maybe, and then a taxi-bus. I don’t know. Where are you from?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Refugee: “Syria. Damascus.”

Narration:These men are tired. They clearly haven’t slept for a long time. They are happy to be finally crossing into Austria. But they are simply too tired to show it.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “And, how is the journey? You were in Greece, Turkey, Greece?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Refugee: “One month.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “One month; from where, Turkey?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Refugee: “The journey took one month. On the sea and from Greece, and then Turkey, to Macedonia.We are very tired.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “And, was it hard, have you slept?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Refugee: “Oh, very difficult. We faced, and still face many difficulties.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Like what?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Refugee: “sleeping; and for example walking for long times, long hours.”

Narration: Sights like this. Hundreds or thousands of refugees passing with their children and all their belongings along roads unto the European countryside is common in this part of Europe now. With the hundreds of thousands still making their way from Greece and Turkey, the end of this wave of migration is not yet in sight. The vast majority of these people are fleeing war. But, images like this scare many.

SOUNDBITE [Hungarian] Viktor Orbán, Prime Minister of Hungary: “These people who are clattering through Hungary don’t stop even in Austria. These people are not coming for their security, they are not running for their lives. For those for whom the Serbian standard of living is not good, the Hungarian stand of living is not good and neither is the Austrian standard of living. They are not keeping security in mind but standards of living. He wants to live a German life. By the way, I understand that. As I said, a man who has a higher standard of living has to understand that the other, too, want what we have. But we have worked for this, let me say this again, and no-one can ask us to share this with somebody who is no longer in danger.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “So, here is the Austrian border; how do you feel?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Refugee: “Tired of fires, of bombs, of fighting. We want to live. We are humans. We don’t want to fight each other. We want to study. We want to improve my life.”

Narration: The Austrians are far more organized than authorities further east.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Refugees are receiving much better treatment here at the Austrian border than they were in Serbian-Hungarian border. A heavy police presence; people are queuing here in order to get buses to get across here. They have translators as well.”

Narration:It seems as a reminiscent movie. Lines of army tents are ready to shelter refugees. They bought buses which will take them on to Germany. Like other European countries, Austria is simply keen to move people on to the next country as quickly as possible. The wealthier refugees get taxis near-by.

SOUNDBITE [English] Marta Pardav, Co-President, Hungarian Helsinki Committee: “I don’t think Europe needs to close its borders at all, no.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “You are promoting a completely open-door policy.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Marta Pardav, Co-President, Hungarian Helsinki Committee: “No. What I am saying is that there should be for people who are coming from war. There should be a way for them to come fast and in a safe way, and in a legal way.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Camille Tournebize, Activist, Migrant Solidarity Group: “I think they have to find a solution. They just have to accept. Well, all European countries have to accept the fact that this is happening and migration can serve to be a really positive thing. And, these people will not stop coming; they are fleeing war and the amount of people who are already in Europe is really small in comparison with the people who actually fled from these countries. So it is not a huge responsibility.”

TIME CODE: 40:00_46:25

Narration: A train from Vienna to Munich. Soon, finally these refugees will pass into Germany. This is Qatada, and his family.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “You were in Turkey a few weeks ago. Were you in Turkey? Do you see, and how many people were trying to get into Europe?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Qatada, Syrian Refugee: “Most of them, they wanted to go to Europe in Istanbul. Because in Turkey, its expensive like there. The salary is too much down. In Europe, they give us more things about houses; if I want to learn, if I want to make anything about my study, my work. They help us more than any place in the world.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: There are over two million refugees in Turkey alone; millions more throughout the Middle East.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Qatada, Syrian Refugee: “I understand that here in Europe, they can’t accept all the people to come to Europe. Sure, I know that. Because there is now a lot of people going there. A lot of people. It’s a problem for the people in Europe. For you, I think, maybe there is a problem for you too.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Qatada tells me he would prefer to go to the UK. But, since the UK is unwelcoming of refugees, he thinks it will be difficult. Most of the refugees I spoke to want to go to Germany or Sweden; the most welcoming countries. Amongst European policy makers now, there is a fear that if Europe as a whole, is seen as welcoming, the flow will not stop. Now where are you going?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Qatada, Syrian Refugee: “To Sweden. Malmö in Sweden.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Because, why?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Qatada, Syrian Refugee: “Because, our brothers and their sons are there in Malmö in Sweden. For that we want to go to the same city there.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Do you think there is anything that could stop you from getting to Sweden?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Qatada, Syrian Refugee: “I think no. everything will be perfect. But, you know the weather will be bad a little for us. All the time snowing and raining. But, no problem.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “We are not far from getting into the next station in Germany. Now, it will be the final destination for some of the refugees in this train. Most will be making their way elsewhere in Europe. Germany and Sweden as popular destinations. One woman just came up and asked us how she can get to Sweden. Because her 17-year-old son is there. She had no idea how she’ll be able to get there. And, that’s what commonly happens while through the journey into Europe. Refugees come up to ask. To ask us questions; how do they get there? Are they going to be fingerprinted by the authorities? Often, they are scared and don’t know what’s going to happen. Most refugees that get into Munich, there is still a long way to go.”

Narration: As Qatada and his family get off the train at Munich station, European policy makers are frantically trying to find solution to the crisis. From quotas accepting refugees, greater border controls, and for funding for camps in the Middle East. Over the long term solution though, there is still appear to be little movement.

SOUNDBITE [English] Istvan Lovas, Journalist: “One of the reasons that there is this huge wave of people leaving is because they are spreading the influence of the ISIS. And, it’s the fault of the United States.”

Narration: Istvan says that the European powers along with the United States are doing little to promote peace in the Middle East. And, so what is the solution to all this?

SOUNDBITE [English] Istvan Lovas, Journalist: “The solution I think is to destroy the Islamic State. They are destroying, killing, whatever, you know, mass murders. I think we should somehow get our focus much better on our friendship with countries that deserve to be allied with.”

Narration: At Munich train station, Germans look on at the strange sights; hundreds of refugees arriving every hour.

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “How do you feel about all these refugees coming to Germany?”

SOUNDBITE [English] A German citizen: “I feel great, it’s great, like the Balkan culture. It’s horrible to think about what they have had in their life before. I am very happy that these people can be here now and be free. And, perhaps they can start a new life.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “All these refugees you see here coming from Munich. Do you think they are welcome?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Tourist: “Well, I hope they are welcome. I am not from here. I am a tourist with my bag.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “Where are you from?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Tourist: “I am from Chile; in South America. I was in Syria though. I did visit the place. So, I have huge sympathy for that is going through, and I think it talks great about Germany on how they are receiving refugees. It talks good about Europe, I think; overall.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Johnny Miller, Presenter, Producer and Director of the Program: “How many refugees are welcome?”

SOUNDBITE [English] A German citizen: “Uh, depends on how many it will need. And, I think, here in Germany, we are rich country, we have a lot of money and now they say its like 800 thousands; perhaps it’s like two million. I don’t know. All the people can come to Germany because we have the possibilities for these people. I think there is no limit. For me there is no limit, and a lot of people.”

Narration: But, Europeans are divided. And the more refugees that come, the more people are likely to say no more. While wars in Middle East are re-drawing maps, the migrant crisis that has followed is changing Europe. From the rise of the far-right changing demographics and splits in the European Union to new fences going up along its borders. Meanwhile, refugees keep on coming. 

   

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