Iranscape: Jhiho and Kenis

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Iran is a country with a rich history and culture. Life in Tehran, Iran's capital city is much like life in any other large metropolitan centre yet it is enriched with Iran's ancient traditions and flavored with Iranian culture and art. Part of the Iranian culture is intertwined with the Persian language. Perhaps the full experience of life in a foreign country cannot be attained unless one learns the language. In this episode we will meet two foreign students who have come to Iran to learn the Persian language. Jhiho and Kenis are both students in the Dehkhoda Institute. Jhiho is from China, she has just started to learn Farsi but is improving fast. She has found the Iranian people friendly and helpful. In this episode of Iranscape we will follow Jhiho as she visits the Museum of the Qasr Prison. Kenis is from Venezuela, she is quite fluent in Farsi. She has enjoyed her time in Iran and has visited different cities and attractions. She hopes to be able to visit Kish Island in the Persian Gulf. We follow Kenis and her friend as they visit the Tehran Peace Museum. This museum is a member of the International Network of Museums for Peace. The main objective of the museum is to promote a culture of peace through raising awareness.

TIME CODE: 00:00_05:00

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “Well, the new word written on the board is “facilities””

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student: “My name is Jhiho. I’m 22 years old. With live in a state in north China near the sea.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “… Where you use them. Facilities are the tools that help you live more comfortably. Ok now Jhiho, tell me where you live? Which city?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student: “The name of the village or district I live in is Chinda.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “Chinda?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student: “Yes!”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “Well, what is the population of Chinda?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student: “Nine million people live in Chinda.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “Good, nine million people.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student: “Yes.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “That’s the population. Transportation vehicles… ok, what vehicles do people use for transportation? What vehicles do we use? Taxis, buses?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student: “Buses…”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “Most people …”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student: “Or taxi.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: “Welcome to the Museum of the Qasr Prison. I’m the museum guide and I’ll be more than happy to show you around.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student: “This is the scale model of the prison and it was opened in 1308 and it has four Hashties, it’s in Persian architecture, these Hashties and they have ways to the cells and the architecture is somehow that the prisoner can find the way out.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: “These windows have remained intact since the reign of Reza Shah.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student: “The windows are the same from the time of the king Reza Shah… And it is not changed since. They are the same.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student: “Very old.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: “These statues resemble the prison guards during the reign of Reza Shah. This one was the key holder …They were tasked with guarding the prisoners.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student: “What is this person’s name?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: “His name is Mohammad Dargahi.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student: “Mohammad Dargahi…in the time of Reza Shah.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: “He sponsored the construction of the building.

This is a statue of Farokhi Yazdi, the first Iranian poet whose lips were sewn. They stitched his lips together because he composed anti-government poems. The government mercenaries brought him here and killed him by injecting air into his veins.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student: “What are these? What’s he writing on the walls?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student: “Poems. His poems even when he was in prison he would write poems on the walls of his cell.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: ““Nature” what does it mean? Give me some examples.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student: “I’m Kenis. I came from Venezuela. Latin America. And I’m a student now in Dehkhoda. I started there and I’m now in intermediate 2.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “Well, Kenis, What areas of Iran’s nature have you visited so far?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student: “I’ve visited north of Iran. It is humid.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “You like the north of Iran? North for the sake of north of Iran or its food?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student: “Its nature is similar to that of my own country. There are plenty of trees and lakes.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “Where would you like to visit most in Iran?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student: “In Iran … I’d say Kish.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “Okay, but you haven’t been to Kish, have you?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student: “God willing, if I ever have a day off, I’ll go.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “Sometimes there are seas in nature, but some other times there’s no water. We call that dry land a desert. Who’s ever been to a desert? Have you ever been to a desert?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student: “There is a small desert … nearby … there is a city near Isfahan, which is scorching hot … what’s its name?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “Nain.”

TIME CODE: 05:00_10:00

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student: “Yes, Nain.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Teacher: “Have you visited Nain?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student: “Yeah, next to Nain.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student: “First I knew Iran in my country. The things that Iranians and Venezuelan have in common, I found something in common, is that we are Iranians and Venezuelan are warm people. Iranians are the people who like to socialize with other people.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student: “Let’s have a look, what is there?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student: “Wow, Tehran Peace Museum.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student: “What is it about?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student: “Let’s check what they have inside.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student: “Yeah.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student: “It sounds interesting.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student: “Some information about peace.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student: “Hello, good afternoon.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Foreign Student: “Hello, how do you do?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man, Museum Guide: “It seems you are from another country, am I right?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Foreign Student: “Yeah, you are right.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man, Museum Guide: “Well then, let’s speak English”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student: “Thanks its better.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student: “Thank you.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: “First of all I welcome you because of coming to Tehran Peace Museum.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student: “Who is that man?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: “He is called Zahaak. According to the Persian history he was the person and as the effect of evil kiss on his shoulder we can see two devils, somehow two black snakes on his shoulder. Zahaak in a symbol of Persian brutal and murder in the Persian history. The food of these snakes was the brain of human so you can imagine how dangerous he was.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Iranians got killed for his food. They became food for snakes.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student:It was very interesting. He was a dangerous man.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Foreign Student:I’ve studied about Iranian culture.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: It is great, it is great. In Persian methodology Zahaak is …”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:From Shahnameh?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: Yes, exactly.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:Shahnameh?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: Yes, Yes. Do you know the writer of Shahnameh?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Ferdowsi?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: Wow that’s great!”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student:Thank you for explaining.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: Have you ever seen him?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:Yes, the picture.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: The picture? So you should know them. I want to ask you what you know about Saddam Hussein.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:He was the former president of Iraq before the US entered Iraq, Just the last time I heard about, I heard about Iraq-Iran war which was about 8 years.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: Yes exactly, 1980 to 1988.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student: “And without any results just a lot of people died.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:So which ones are the most obvious, the most important consequence of chemical weapons used in the war between Iran and Iraq?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: Two types of chemical weapons. Sulfur mustard gas and nervous agents were used in the war unfortunately and these dangerous materials affected both people and environment in Iran, I will show you more in the museum.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:Which was the reaction of your country? of Iran?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: Iran never wanted to invade Iraq. They just wanted to save, to defend the country but not anything more, any more questions?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:It was the right answer for peace.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: Was?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:It was the right answer for peace because they were only protecting not attacking.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: Yes, exactly. And because of this reason we call these 8 years the holy defense.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:The holy defense. In Farsi how is it?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man, Museum Guide: The Holy Defense.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student:The Holy Defense.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man, Museum Guide: Yes, yes. Not only the defense but the holy one. In respect to those soldiers who were in that battle because we didn’t want to invade Iraq. We just wanted to defend our country and I think it is our human right.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student:Thank you very much.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man, Museum Guide: You’re welcome.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student:In my opinion this name fits perfectly.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:It is very beautiful in here.”

TIME CODE: 10:00_15:00

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: This place used to be a royal palace which belonged to Fath-Ali Shah Qajar; but later it was transformed into prison. Actually after the palace was hit and mostly ruined by a devastating flood, they decided to use it as a prison. This was back in 1929. We are sitting right under a Hashti now, which you must have seen on your way down here. This place is one of the first prisons which is now being used as a cultural center. Well, this place used to be a gym. It was built in 1966 for the prisoners to do exercises. Ok, the picture you see hanging on the wall belonged to the athletesof the time of Qajar and Pahlavi. Among these athletes, Gholamreza Takhti is in the forefront. He was popularly nicknames Jahan Pahlavan; the first Iranian Olympic gold-medalist in wrestling.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:In which field did he get his present?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:In wrestling it was. He was a champion in wrestling.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Yeah, that is really nice.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:In my first day in Tehran, I felt at first everything very strange for me. But then I met a girl, an Iranian girl, I didn’t know her but she helped me a lot and showed me how to go to the bank. I don’t know Farsi but she helps me talk to so much people. To go to supermarket to buy some stuff. She helps me a lot.”

Is this one for the sport?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Yeah they use this to the sport. I’m not sure if I can do it. Oh! So heavy!”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Yes. Really heavy! I think that one is lighter.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:You are so strong that you can pick that up.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Yes, I use my two hands to pick it up.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:But those guys, they do it like this.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Yes, so strong. This one is so much lighter.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:This is the lightest one.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:I think I can hold two.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:You can hold them both?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Yes.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Strong. Let me help you.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Yes, you need to help me. Like that guy in the picture.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:That guy in the picture, yeah.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: Did you take pictures?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Yes, thank you.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man at museum: “We’re now at the first peace museum in the Middle East. There are actually 150 museums for peace in the world.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:Tragedy of Sardasht. June 28, 1987. It is very recent.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man at museum: Peace museum fall into two categories; one of them depicts the dark side of the war; and the other promotes the culture of peace. War casualties have increased fifty-fold from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. Technology has failed to put a stop to the death toll. If truth be told, technology without ethics has led to the massacre of humankind.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:Investigated by university of medical sciences, 2002, in Tehran.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man at museum: “The civilian proportion of war-related deaths is recorded at 92% in recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. First of all, we increase public consciousness that war casualties are mostly civilian not military which is not acceptable universally. Therefore, it is the non-military people not the military or politicians who should decide whether or not to go to war. The value and significance of peace is represented here. We realize the true price of peace.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:This is a very complicated matter. The peace is something very difficult to reach”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man at museum: “Education … just like how we teach our children to look after their health, we need to pay attention and invest in the noteworthy issue of peace and teach it to our children.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student:I do agree with you.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:It is nice.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:I got from Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, 2011.So, 60 years ago, atomic bomb in Hiroshima.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man at museum: “What do you think peace is? How do you define it?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:Be happy together and do not judge each other.”

TIME CODE: 15:00_20:00

SOUNDBITE [English] Man at museum: “To be kind to people, and not judge one another.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man at museum: “The beauty of the Persian language is latent Persian poems.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Foreign Student:Yes, That’s right, but unfortunately I can’t understand the poems yet.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man at museum: “Since there are both ethnical and cultural concepts in the poems, when you read them you feel happy and satisfied inside. Bringing peace to the world starts from ourselves.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man at museum: “We should start peace from ourselves.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Man at museum: “Read that aloud and follow it.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man at museum: “And we should read this definition of peace loudly.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:With loud voice.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Man at museum: “Yes, and try to do that.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student:Sure, I’m at your service.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Foreign Student:Human beings are members of the whole, connected to one essence and soul.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student:Um, I think”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: The first radios and wireless communications started here, this is called a Morse telegraph. It’s been used for sending and receiving messages written as dots and dashes.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Oh, here.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: Yeah, it writes there.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student:It is very difficult.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: Yeah, you are right!”

Jhiho: Yes.

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: This is a machine for voice recording and reproduction. Put your hand here…”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:It is reproduction.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student:What else? What’s this for?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: This is for recording and broadcasting your voice.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Oh... yes, I got it.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:It is a machine called Schlumberger, may be a German name.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student: A German name.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Foreign Student:Yeah … great.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Museum Guide: Well, this was the interior building of the museum, and here we are in courtyard that I explained about earlier – it is now a playground for children. We’ve set up a booth; an old Tehran booth, which you can visit. The old Tehran theme is put on display so you can go there with your friend and enjoy. Our tour around the museum ends here. It was a pleasure to meet you. Do visit us again.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Oh, no, now we have to do our homework. (Laughter)”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:Yes, we have to do our duties.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:The museum was very interesting. Too much information.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:Yes, it is true.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:What do you have for your homework and which part of the book?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:I have homework from my …”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:What does “I bought a ticket” mean?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:“Bilit” means ticket. Oh, yeah of course.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student:Teachers want to take students to the zoo.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:What does this word refer to?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Kenis, Foreign Student:Which line?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:The end of the fifth line. The last word in it. Fifth line.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:This word means panther.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Panther? Thanks.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Foreign Student:Children gathered cheerfully around their cage … and the small monkey snatched the camera abruptly and took it inside the cage.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:This text is better because I think the most words I can understand in the context if I read it in the text but if isolate it like this you know? But you can do your homework and I ask you if I don’t know anything.”

TIME CODE: 20:00_25:00

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:You can get the meaning better in the text.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:You don’t think so?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:Yes. In the text.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:You can try.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Thanks.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Do you like it?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:It is a little bit sweet for me.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Hum.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Traditional food …I don’t know any of it!”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Mirzaghasemi.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Mirzaghasemi”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Dolmeh”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Dolmeh.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Saleswoman: Thank you … Rice bread, date bread, sesame with honey.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Foreign Student:What is this?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Saleswoman: This is a shop-bought piroshki. Ash-e dough, ash-e reshte and piroshky.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student:What is this?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Saleswoman: This is hot mint; I fried mint in oil for just a few minutes.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Ancient Iran was like this. In the Qajar era, yeah. So strange looking at these old pictures. Do you feel the same looking at the historical pictures of China?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Yes, I have so many, they are very different from now. And it feels so real but not real because the photo is very powerful…Oh, I know these guys from Zurkhaneh! Yeah…”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Yeah!”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Foreign Student:Hello, how do you do?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] A man, Local resident: Fine, thank you.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Is this carpet handmade or machine-made?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] A man, Local resident: No, it is hand-woven. All of these you see here are handmade. We don’t sell machine woven things. You see? Each province has a unique style of weaving. This rug has been woven in Khorasan province, Ghouchan. This one is from Shiraz and has been woven by hand by the Ghashghai tribe, south of Iran … They have been woven from there and hung from above and arranged from below like this. These are Iranian wool colors. This is walnut shell. This is Rona color. This one is a herbal color; it is not chemical. Tell her it is done alternately.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Every other one.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] A man, Local resident: Now you try it.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student:This is very difficult. I can’t!”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Let’s try together!”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] A man, Local resident: What has brought you to Iran?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student:I’m here to learn the Persian language.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] A man, Local resident: So you are here for the seasonal exhibitions.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Persian language.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] A man, Local resident: Oh, yes, sorry. Are you a student? In Tehran University?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Jhiho, Foreign Student:Yeah, Tehran University, it is close to here.

Do you know what the material is?”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] Foreign Student:She wants to know what materials have been used to make these.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] A man, Local resident: Iron.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] A man, Local resident: These locks are all handmade and there are only two to three samples left from each one …”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:Until It is so hard to turn again.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian] A man, Local resident: After you tighten it here, the lock opens and if you turn it the other way, it gets locked.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Foreign Student:It is a lion, you see?”

SOUNDBITE [English] Kenis, Foreign Student:I have a wish for the world. My dream was to see the snow and I cannot see it much now because our world is getting hot. We don’t care about nature. We are not recycling enough. We have to use less plastic and start to use bicycle. Ride bicycles and use less car. It is very important because we have just one world and we cannot change it and our weather is getting bad for all of us. It doesn’t matter where you live. We can’t breathe. Everything is dirty. Everything is polluted. It is not good for children. It is not good for the future. We have to care more about our nature, our ecology.”

SOUNDBITE [English] Jhiho, Foreign Student:I want to write something about peace. Be nice to people. Don’t hurt nice people. For example we fight for very small things but if you just say sorry people forgive you, that’s all finished. But if you don’t finish and you fight to each other, there are very horrible results. That’s for people but for the country. The fight between countries sometimes only because of small reasons, because of these reasons countries fight. There is blood. So many people are dead. Why do you fight?”

   

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