Liverpool is one of England’s most renowned cities, for periods during its history the wealth of Liverpool exceeded that of London itself, and its Custom House was the single largest contributor to the British Exchequer. Toady tourists marvel at the monumental buildings, constructed on a heroic, even megalomaniacal scale which stands witness to the supreme confidence and ambition of the city. But where did all this wealth come from and how did a small fishing city become known as "the New York of Europe"? To find the answer to this question this documentary delves into the dark pages of history: a time when Liverpool was at the center of a global slave trade, a time when men and women were uprooted and sold for the profit of others.

TIME CODE: 00:00_05:00

Football commentary, Liverpool vs. Man.City

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “This city, everybody thinks it’s a multi-racial city. What they mean is when you walk around the streets in Liverpool they see people of different nationalities. I’m going to tell you what happened to my ancestors. Liverpool was built on the slave trade. I was born in Liverpool in 1932 in the city center, on a street called Newington. My mother was a black women and she was born in a little village outside of Newcastle. The name of the village was Shotley Bridge. Her father arrived in this country sometime in the 1800s, by himself without any family members what so ever. So did my grandfather come from Barbados, my mother’s father and my own father came from Barbados. 99.9 percent of all black people born in the Caribbean, are the descendants of enslaved people.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: Put in simple terms why was there slavery? Well the reason slavery took off on this industrial scale, was that people needed certain luxury goods.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Liverpool History Guide: The money that it brings to the city itself, there is no doubt about it, if it hadn’t been for the slave trade Liverpool would never be this city that it is today.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Richard Benjamin, Director, International Slavery Museum: “For two hundred years all the European powers had been making vast profits.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “Originally Liverpool was just a small tiny fishing village consisting of farmers and fishermen.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: What we see as Liverpool’s important point in its history, is 1709 when the council put in for an act of parliament to build a proper, what we call a wet dock, which is as we know them now, and basically it was finished by 1715 and basically became a triumph.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “And immediately the British government legalizes the slave trade, the river Mersey is full of slave ships. So the wealth of the city is backed on the slave trade.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “And from then, Liverpool starts building more and more docks, there’s more roads being developed, canals being developed, and basically from that point on Liverpool has this meteoric rise that we now know of Liverpool and it becomes really the leading port in the Atlantic trade in the 1870.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: “And that’s why it made it an excellent place to have a ship to go to Africa for trading slaves.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “And the river Mersey is full of slave ships, and the way which river Mersey was situated was ideal for the Liverpool slave trades.There is a possibility that the fishermen who had the knowledge of the sea, the knowledge of boat building, they’ll bring the news of Africa and the slave trade to Liverpool.They combine their knowledge with the wealth of the farmers and so they get involved in the slave trade.”

TIME CODE: 05:00_10:00

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: Here we can see Liverpool as it appeared in 1725 just a few years after the dock was constructed the first commercial wet dock in the world, invented here in Liverpool to meet a particular local need.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: It is extremely difficult to find dates regarding when Liverpool first gets involved in the slave trade and the reason for that is when they first get involved it is a secret business.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: Well the poison of slavery started centuries, thousands of years ago possibly, but it was really the demands of the Europeans that made the slave trade grow to an enormous extent.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Angela Robinson, Curator, International Slavery Museum: “Well it’s a number of things really,you would have had Europeans finding the Americas so there was land there that could be cultivated and profit to bemade, and also obviously there was already trade with parts of Africa but there was an opportunity to take people to the Americas, so it was realized that they needed other people to do it, and the obvious choice was Africans ‘cause they were used to the heat. Generally the triangle starts in Europe obviously,with the putting out of ships, ships with goods such as beads, manilas, textiles, tobacco, these goods would have been taken to Africa, west Africa in particular, so that’s the first part of the rout from Europe to west Africa.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “Once, and it would take up to 3 months maybe to get enough slaves to load the slave trade vessel.That vessel would then go across the famous middle passage and go perhaps to Jamaica or, certainly before 1750, also very involved in the slave trade, to the continental colonies as well. Once there, they will of course sell those slaves on.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Angela Robinson, Curator, International Slavery Museum: “With the final part of rout being: the things they would produce in America such as cotton and sugar being transported back to Europe and then sold.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “So this triangular trade isn’t quite so simple, so those ships might go back across the Atlantic to Liverpool in time to tie up with the next season of slave trade.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: “But there was a major issue over slavery, it was because the Africans did not use money, so part of the slave trade was involved in, was doing, trading with the Africans and it was like a bartering system, the way it operated was that the merchants in Liverpool would trade goods with the Africans for what was known as‘African laborers’ and they were slaves.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “In 1944 Eric Williams brought out a very famous book called Capitalism and Slavery which is still a bedrock book for discussing all these questions,and basically he argued that the slave trade was very important, for the profits were invested into things such as the canals, you know, to industrial manufacturing especially cotton.What is certain is that the wider system of slavery was really important for the British imperial project, or the imperial world.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: “And everyone in the town and beyond us as well were involved, the butcher, the backer, the candle stick maker, anyone who had a bit of spare cash would actually invest in a slave voyage and it was big money, and it was extremely profitable.That’s why people were very reluctant at first that it should be stopped.”

TIME CODE: 10:00_15:00

SOUNDBITE [English], Angela Robinson, Curator, International Slavery Museum: “It is beyond our imagination really. Itwas a voyage where the Africans, men in particular, would be shackled. They would be forced to lie shackled side by side. They wouldn’t have be able to go to the toilet.They would have stayed in that position in the majority of the voyage. They would be allowed to come up and get air and exercise, depending on the weather, but most of the time they were shackled together. And in any sort of rough sea, allthe hatches would’ve been closed down.There were likely to have disease, obviously people couldn’t go to the toilets and so you would have been lying in your own excrement, and people were sick, a lot of people were dying, their bodies would have been lying there for a while until they were thrown overboard.”

“Women had more freedom, but they were more likely to be expose to being assaulted, being raped by the sailors.So the whole experience, it went onfor weeks, it went on for 8 weeks, and longer. If something went wrong with the voyage, there wasless food, they went on longer than they had planned. It’s an absolutely horrific thing. I don’t think we can really describe it and it’s very hard to imagine.”

“People did survive and did pass because millions went to the Americas, but a large portion did die in the middle passage, and the more prolonged the voyage, the less likely you were to survive.”

“And there was quite a lot of revolt, people struggling for their freedom and resisting being enslaved, and not having their lives taken away from them. Women were very instrumental in that, because they had more freedom.They could help menby telling them was going on, providing them with things to use.”

“They were usually suppressed, unfortunately they weren’t that successful. And even if they could take overa ship, like in the Amistad, they didn’t know which way was home.And it wasn’t very successful; people actually couldn’t turn the ship around and head to Africa.”

“Other forms of revolt being: people would throw themselves over board to escape being enslaved; starved themselves to death, or tried to starve themselves to death. They were force-fed if they refused to eat.There were lots and lots of different ways, apart from the uprising were people obviously resisted being enslaved. Families that had managed to stay together up to that point, were potentially separated and sold into slavery, and they would go and work on plantations.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “Once upon the deck, they’re held down and washed with salt water hosepipes, under the whip and the lash, they’re frog-marched naked through the streets, until they got them into the stockades. Once they get them into the stockades, their bodies were rubbed with oil of Christy to make their skin shine. Any open sours or wounds would be covered with Tartu disguise them, weeks later, if they were fat enough, they would be taken to the market place to be sold as cattle.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Angela Robinson, Curator, International Slavery Museum: “Your name was taken away from you. You’re given a new name, all your identity is taken away.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: “They had to become Christians, and they also had Christian names and they were named after their new masters.So their African identity had to be totally forgotten.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Angela Robinson, Curator, International Slavery Museum: “You had a process where their trying to break your will; that you accept your lot, that you accept that this is what your life is, and that you do what your mastertells you, and if you don’t do what your master tells you, you’re punished.”

“Marriage was allowed by only by the master’s say so. Children were born, but those children were born into slavery. They didn’t belong to their parents.They were allowed to have some form of life, but they worked from Sun-dawn to Sun-set. That leaves very little time in the day to actually have a life.”

TIME CODE: 15:00_20:00

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: “This model shows the typical plantation that these slaves would have worked in. And in the back ground you can see some of the punishments that were meted out to the slaves who disobeyed their masters, and it has to be said that these were very cruel punishments.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “When they walk around the city, very few people stop and look around them, and then when they do stop and look at these beautiful buildings, they always ask the wrong question. The question they always ask is ‘when were these buildings built?’And that’s the wrong question to ask. The correct question to ask is: ‘Where did the money come from to build these buildings?’ Martin’s Bank was built in 1927. The bank was originally set up by two brothers. They were slave trader. They made that much money, they started to lend it to their friends, so they could get involved in the slave trade. You do not need me to tell you that there are slave children, standing on the deck of aslave ship, because around their ankles and their wrists they are wearing shackles. They were naked. Different hair styles, which tells you they come from different parts of Africa, when this was built in 1927, no feeling of shame. This is the arrogance of power. This is saying who they are.And also that the black people, the none-white people, amount to nothing.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “Within the European context, I think obviously all European powers were involved in slavery to some extent, all involved in slave economies in the Atlantic world.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “Underneath here, we have an underground car park, but originally it was a bondage ware house. This was where the British government and the Royalty got their share from the slave trade. All the goods which came from the plantation would be impounded and not released until customs usually had been paid. Liverpool for its size, had more MPs in the Houses of Parliament than any other city.Most of the MPswere slave owners, slave traders. That’s how they became MPs .I used to work on street through there, Old Horse street. This was the business area, and at lunch time even now, you would see the square full of people walking backwards and forwards. But at that time there were people all over it all day long. Many people, both black and white, ask me the question: ‘how can black people sell other black people as slaves’? And the answer, unfortunately, is easy. There’re no different to white people? Let’s have look at Great Britain for a moment, made up of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.Atone time they were four different countries, which spoke different languages, different religions and different traditions. The only thing they hadin common was being white, and that didn’t stopped them going to war and killing each other. When we look at Africa, we forget the Africa as the vast continent, is made up of different countries where they speak different languages, different religions, different traditions, different cultures, and the only thing they have in common is being black, and that doesn’t stop them going to war and killing each other.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “There has been some argument of course that we helped to promulgate this by producing a strong demand for slaves. We were the European’s were able to feed into this quite easily, drawing up slaves from a quite wide way inside the African hinter land.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Angela Robinson, Curator, International Slavery Museum: “It was supported by the church; it was supported by the royal family. Africans were seen as ‘other’. They weren’t the same as Europeans, different culture, different way life, so we didn’t feel so bad if we enslaved them or hurt them, because they were not us.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “We see them being re-drawn as beasts, as lesser form of humans etc. So this is all happening obviously at the same time as the Enlightenment, there was a very strong connotation with the words white, pure, good;and black, bad, evil, devil etc. So something in the mind thinks of blacks as being very different.”

TIME CODE: 20:00_25:00

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “Believe it or not, the slave traders actually had a morality argument, believe it or not! And this was to do with a variety of things: firstly they said, well actually our conditions on the ships are much nicer than those of the French, our main competitors. Then we also see them in terms of morality bringing out these arguments that we talked about before, such as: well some of these slaves are criminals; they have been sold into slavery for debt and especially the king of Dahomey, he had them as poll tax, and the one she didn’t need, he just killed them anyway. So basically, not only were they already in a form of slavery, they might die, they were very bad, and we are giving them a better option by shipping them off to Caribbean and basically giving them a better life. But they tell the British Parliament: its part of our Christianizing, civilizing mission!”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: You are not white, you are black, therefore you have no rights what so ever. I can do with you whatever I like. This is the arrogance of power, this is the way in which the British and the Liverpool slave traders thought.This is the arrogance of power.They are saying, none-white people are nothing. This is what the country and the city of Liverpool is made of. This building here belonged to the White Star shipping company, that was the offices of the White Star shipping company that owned the Titanic.Like most of the shipping companies in Liverpool, if youtrace the history far enough back, you’llfind they were involved in the slave trade. That’s how they become shipping companies.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “Because Liverpool is so involved in height of that trade, it obviously carries a lot of the slaves, and it carries possibly about 1.1 million of all the slaves that go across the Atlantic, in the Atlantic slave trade, and of course because Liverpool so involved in the height, itends up taking quite a bit chunk of those slaves crossed.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “You’ve got to understanding that villages in the heart of Africa were raided for slaves. When those villages were taken out of the heart of Africa, nobody counted the dead and the dying that were left behind; the babies, the elderly, the men and women who were worried and fought. Nobody counts the dead and the dying in the dungeons all around the West African coast. Nobody counts the dead and the dying of the ships that went down, the slaves, sea men, all hands.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: So it was millions of Africans who were taken across the Atlantic and many of them in Liverpool ships.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “They said, Africans are the children of the devil, they are the sons and daughters of Ham. According to the Bible, Ham the son of Noah had seen hisfather’s nakedness, therefore God was supposed to have cursed him and all his offspring, and that’s suppose to be the reason why we are black. Therefore, (they though) by taking these black creatures and treating them harshly, we are doing nothing wrong, we’re doing God’s work.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: They used those ideas to justify slavery rather than, going against it, right until the very end of the period. I think it’s quite interesting to think along those lines as well,we’re talking about the time of The Rights of Man, (written by) Tom Pain, and it gets also really interesting to think that as late as 1776, the Declaration of Independence etc., and the claim that all men are equal.Well, that is definitely men not female, and also,even in the new ‘leader of the free world’(USA), that really meant white, free men and Christian, white, free man”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “The Dutch reformed Churches of outh Africa, used the same part of the Bible to justify Apartheid. The Ku Klux Clan or the White Protestant Organisation uses the same the part of the Bible to justify white supremacy.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “A lot of the other forms of slavery are based on ethnicity, on gender perhaps, on bad luck, bondage, debt, etc. This is the first one justified eventually by race. Eric Williams famously said, ‘Slavery was not born of racism, racism was born of slavery’, because it starts off, and it becomes such an important part of the Atlantic economy for all the European powers, that we have to justify the other.”

TIME CODE: 25:00_30:00

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “There’s no such thing as race, there’s only one race: the human race. Race was devised by white scientists to prove how superior they were to none-white people. Nobody is an alien. The earth belongs to all of us. Nobody came from outer space. We are different nationalities, but unfortunately the way, in which things go on in this country, nobody speaks about nationality anymore. It all about what race you are.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “Pennsylvania and Philadelphia particular, in the early 18th century, were important in driving the abolition movement. But as I said, it was so entrenched that people really didn’t want to listen.And it’s only in the 1780s in fact that we see the abolition movement really taking off in Britain.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: “Actually the whole of this town was involved in the slave trade. Everyone was in it and they fought, they fought, to keep the slave trade for years and years and years.”

“We can see the advert which was from a newspaper, I think the Liverpool Mercury, and interestingly there Francis Guild art who’s mentioned in the newspaper article, he was of a slave owner family as well. The whole town was involved in slavery. They never mentioned it; it never spoke about in polite society, what you referred to was ‘Africa laborers’.”

“All these streets still exist in Liverpool and they all have links with the slave trade. The Tarltons were slave traders, the Cunliffs were slave trades and the Earls were slave traders. Admiral Rodney was a supporter of the slave trade even though he was not involved in the trade himself. Newton was a slave ship captain who became a devote Christian. Penny Lane is probably named after James Penny or his family, another prominent slave trader, and Jamaica Street, of course it named after Jamaica, former British colony where many of slaves were taken and where their descendants live today.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Angela Robinson, Curator, International Slavery Museum: “It isn’t a white European movement. It isn’t just about white Europeans, it’s very much a movement by whom were being slaved, by those still in slavery, working together to end slavery.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “The first thing that really, I suppose the important mark point is 1788 when William Dalbin put an act, a billion to Parliament, which does get enacted, and this controls the number of slaves per ton that could be held ona ship.And it also enforces surgeons, they said you have to take ship surgeons on to the slave ships. In fact most ships were taking surgeons on beforehand, because, it’s sounds horrible, because you want to keep you cargo alive. You can’t sell a dead slave. So it was not perhaps so important in the changes thatit made to the slave trade. It was certainly important, I think, as a mementos occasion in brining the abolition movement into fruition.

SOUNDBITE [English], Angela Robinson, Curator, International Slavery Museum: “It’s a movement, a common people’s movement. People from, all parts of life were involved in the abolition movement, and yes definitely there are very key people within the movement that are from African descent.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “There are various arguments that came into play here. The first one is, perhaps because I talked a lot about the economy, is economics. And really here the slave traders had the upper hand. Basically, they said look: the British government encouraged us to invest in slavery for many years; you’ve sanctioned it by parliament, so this is a u-turnin policy. There is over 70 to 80 million Pounds invested in the West Indies, about %30 of that in debts to do with the slave trade. All those manufacturers in Sheffield, Birmingham, Manchester, etc.are all going to be made unemployed, if we’re not involved in the slave trade, not just because of the bartering on the African coast, because basically, and here they had to be honest, so many slaves died every year because their conditions were so awful, that they needed this constant influx of slaves to survive.”

TIME CODE: 30:00_35:00

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “So basically they’re saying: not only are you doinga u-turnin policy that’s unfair, basically the whole Atlantic system that we are the leaders in, is going to fall apart.”

“Now the abolitionists, led by especially Thomas Clarkson for example, really didn’t have such good arguments, because this is all pretty true.He goes around, nearly get’s himself killed by talking to the slave traders and sailors in Liverpool, to get all the details. And basically what he argues is, well surely there’s other things we can do; we can trade with Africaetc., especially the palm oil trade and garments etc., and hard woods etc.This is something else we could trade in.”

“William Wilber force was an MP in the British Parliament. He led parliament and sort of, brought on abolition.Slaves in the Caribbean were finding out about the abolition movement, both sides used this as well, to further their argument. So the slave traders said: if you promote abolition further they’re going to keep rioting; and the abolitionists said: well the fact that they’re rioting shows that they aresentient beings that know what they want and they want freedom.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “Most of the MPs were slave owners, slave traders. When they realized that slavery had to be abolished, they then altered the laws, so they got compensation for every slave they had to give up.Compensation went in their pockets, not into the pockets of the slaves.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “But I think this abolitionist movement becomes wrapped up in this idea of what the British state wants to be in the future, because there’s lots of things happening in the East.I mean, they wanted free trade, you know, they want to dominate, they wanted to get new trade in Africa, maybe not on the slave trade, but also in India with the East.The Dutch are perhaps losing some of their power in the East.So they think if we promote free trade, not only can we continue with the successful Atlantic trade, we can become stronger and stronger in the East.Andthis culminates in the abolition of the slave trade act in 1807,which of course is the end of the slave trade, not slavery more generally. They know for well that the French can step in and take over this trade, so what better way to stop it than by policing it, stopping everyone else doing it. Basically over the 19thcentury, they enforce abolition of the slave trade on various countries in turn.Obviously slavery exists in South America right up into the late 19thcentury.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Richard Benjamin, Director, International Slavery Museum: “When the royal navy squadron targeted a ship that was still illegally trading, one of the things people don’t realize much is where these enslaved Africans ended up.Very few went back to their homeland, very few.They ended up living and forming communities many many miles from where they were from.And it’s a very very sad story. So for instance at the time there was a British Island, well today it’s still a protectorate, called Saint Helina, in the Atlantic. A very very small country, just off the coast of South America and in-between South America and Africa, so it’s a long way and that’s where many of the enslaved Africans were basically left, after they were rescued. And it’s a long way from where they were from.So it puts it into perspective: yes it was positive to have the Royal Navy squadron, but equally, it wasn’t necessarily a happy ending for many of the people that were saved by them.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “And of course, what better way to dress it up, than saying: We’re policing this brave new world! Slavery must stop! It’s evil! You know, so in fact this eventually comes in, there’s an abolition slavery bill in 1833, so it’s quite a while afterwards and that comes into force in 1834.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Angela Robinson, Curator, International Slavery Museum: Obviously Britain did noted slavery within the Caribbean in Americas until like 1883, 1838 and so there was the commitment to stop the slave trade, buta later commitment to stop slavery, so they weren’t hand in hand.There was a longer movement.

TIME CODE: 35:00_40:00

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “Slaves aren’t free actually in fact until 1838, and in those four years those planters are supposed to train the slaves for their new lives. Of course they didn’t want to do that, they want to keep them only the skills they have for the plantations, so that under the new free market economy, the only work they can find is with the plantation owner.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Angela Robinson, Curator, International Slavery Museum: “Practically continuation of slavery really and truly, so once they gain freedom, they didn’t get equality. They got freedom, but freedom is of no use without the right to vote, the right to earnmoney, to have equality, to be treated equal.So that’s a longer process.These dates are significant, but at the same time, they’re not the ends of the story.There starts another story, another chapter, and this history continued and you could sayit continues up to the present day.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Richard Benjamin, Director, International Slavery Museum: You know in many countries, let’s take Brazil, you know it was in 1888 I believe. I mean that’s a long time.So there were still people in countries making a lot of money, until the very latter part of the 19th century.

SOUNDBITE [English], Sheryllynne Haggerty, Professor of History: “There’s a huge mass migration of slaves, or ex-slaves I should say, from 1838 onwards, as they tried to find their family.Even in the domestic slave trade there, families were split up, children were sold, you know, husband and wife are spilt up.The slaves move around to find their family and also they want to use the skills they do have for their own purposes. What’s also worth remembering is that whilst the British are busy celebrating themselves for abolishing the slave trade and slavery in the Atlantic world that various forms of slavery are actually still continuing in their Indian Empire to the East.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “And when it looked that the slavery was going to be abolished, the cotton workers of Yorkshire and Lancashire, they actually rioted.They thought: no slaves, no more cotton, no work for us! We are going to starve to death! But in fact when slavery was abolished, free workers worked twice as hard. There was that much cottonin this country, the British government reduced the age, so that white working class children, as young as four and five years of age, were put to work in the cotton mills, alongside their parents of Yorkshire and Lancashire. Many of them children lost their fingers, lost their arms, lost their lives; no such things as compensation for them.So here we have a situation in this country, where free white working class men, women and children are being treated in a similar fashion, as free slaves.”

“Both groups of people were being treated as what I would call‘waged slaves’.And if you look in the way which multi-businesses move their businesses all around the world, nothing has changed.”

“In 1930s, early 1940s, there was many working class houses, they had no electricity.And my mother used to send me and my sister, my sister was older than me, to the chandlers to buy the paraffinoil fuel for the lamps. And as we had to go through to the shop, we had to pass groups of white working class man and boys, standing on street corners.And as we walked pass them, they would actually spit on their hands and they would actually say: spit on your hands and rub on a nigger’s head for luck!”

TIME CODE: 40:00_45:00

“When we come out of the shop with the oil, those who hadn’t done it would do it, when we got home, our head and hair would be covered in spittle. My mother would be crying her eyes out as she was washing our heads. But my mother could not go and complain to the police. Earlier on, we’d been chased out of the house, not because we were behind with the rent, our rent we always paid, purely and simply because we were black. When I look at theway in which I was treated from the moment I was born, it would have been quite easy for me to become a member of black power, and to want to be separate. But from my point of view, I want to be free, freedom of choice, choice in religion, choice to go wherever I want.Why discriminate against anybody.I don’t want anyone to discriminate against me and therefore I’m not going to discriminate against anybody. But I want to be able to speak my views openly and fearlessly, and I wanted to be treated as a human being; nothing more, nothing less.”

What change this a lot was the Second World War, because all of a sudden regardless of whether you were black or white, once you were born here, you were a brother, once you put the uniform on. A lot of black people, their sons were involved in wars, in many cases, whole black male lines in families were wiped out, because of the color bar, the racism, the only job they could get was a sea man, merchant seaman on the ships. And in many cases, not only was the father on board the ship, but the grandfather, his sons maybe six, seven males in one family, so when that ship was torpedoed, all them men died in sea.”

“And if you do getin the army, you were put in the pioneer course, in another words, you’re the lowest ranks, and you do the lowest jobs.You’reacoupe. I was fortunate that I was in the Royal Artillery and in Royal Artillery I was a driver. As regard authority you may be lucky if you reach the rank of the Captain. You’re extremely lucky, extremely lucky if you reach the rank of the Major.”

“When it comes to jobs, we’re still not treated as full equals as we should be. It’s hard to put your finger on it or to explain it. One of the ways in which ordinary people can see it there, is to start asking the question: how many black people do you see working alongside you? How many black menand women are in position of power? This is the problem. If you go into the establishment, the banks, the businesses, the universities, you will very rarely find black directors man and women in high positions within them organizations.To my way of thinking, a multi-racial city is where you see people of different nationalities all the way through from the person on the door, from the person behind the desk, even to the directorship.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Richard Benjamin, Director, International Slavery Museum: “So obviously there is a slave trade today, of course there is; it is often underground. And we’re trying to campaign to show there is different forms of slavery.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: “It’s a slavery environment, it’s not chattel slavery. Chattel slavery is what Liverpool merchants were involved in, that was buying and selling human beings. Today, it’s much more insidious. It’s not spoken about. It’s about master and servant.”

TIME CODE: 45:00_50:17

SOUNDBITE [English], Richard Benjamin, Director, International Slavery Museum: Whether that is forced marriage, child labor, sexual exploitation.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: “And for example in some countries like Mauritania in North Africa, estimated six hundred thousand of such people who are absolutely behold in to their masters as they call them, and cannot leave their homes, cannot go away, cannot have an independent life.And that’s the face, or one face, of modern day of slavery.”

“The ankle bracelets are worn in that particular part of Africa, which is Niger, as an emblem of slavery you are forced to wear these, and strangely they strongly resemble them anilas that were traded for slaves in the 18thcentury, more than a coincidence.”

“People trafficking, it’s another form of slavery which seems to have grown in recent years, with particularly people who come from poorer parts of Europe are promised a better life and they end up in such things as prostitution and crime.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Richard Benjamin, Director, International Slavery Museum: “The Anti-Slavery International and the International Labor Organization set a motion in place in theUnited Nations to actually outlaw different forms of domestic slavery.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Stephen Guy, Writer and Journalist: “The are many many famous faces here, including the Bishop Toto, Bob Marley, Kufi Anan, Trevor McDonald, Nelson Mandela and others as well.Some who are less well-know, but who of course really set great examples for fellow black people, at a time when there was a very different world indeed. So the black achievers wall really commemorates that achievement. And this is what we call the freedom wall, which is covered with quotations from various people involved, either at the time of the slave trade or in modern times, on what slavery means to them.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Eric Lynch, Independent Researcher and Liverpool History Guide: “And as regards Liverpool, Liverpool’s gota long way to go, asregards being in multi-racial city.They’re constantly talking about it and calling it a multi-racial city.But time and time again, I can prove without a shadow of a doubt, that when you really look deeply, you’ll find that we’re far from beingin a multi-racial city. We’ve got a long way to go and when we stop and think about it, the number of years we’ve been in this country, you will think by this time on life, we would have true equality.But unfortunately this is not the case. We’re not asking for more, we’re asking for equal shares in the prosperity of life. That means when everything is hard, it’s hard for everybody, and when everything is great, it’s great for everybody.”

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