Persian Gulf

A depiction of the fact that the Persian Gulf is an indispensible part of Persian history and culture dating back to the pre-historic era.

TIME CODE: 00:00_05:00

SOUNDBITE [English], Conversation:

Hey, how are you doing?

Hello Mr. Ahmadi



Let’s make a corner clean

Yep, clean it

Just be careful. Not from there. Come over here

Make it clean

Make this part clean

Clean it.”

TIME CODE: 05:00_10:00

SOUNDBITE [English], Dr. Akira Tesuneki, Professor of Archaeology, Tsukuba University: “Now we in site of the cave named Tangeshkan or Seyedeh khaton, and this is one of the largest Cave in the Arsanjan area. The all of layers hear beyond to middle Paleolithic period, it means about from the 80 thousand years ego to 40 thousand years ego, and now this face.. this about 70 or 80 thousand years ego depending on the Paleolithic typology and we discovered the some structures, very interesting Structures for example this is structure of the water supply.”

Narration:This structure is nothing but the stones set around the small basin on the cave floor to prevent soil being dumped into the water and therefore have clean and clear water to drink.

SOUNDBITE [English], Dr. Akira Tesuneki, Professor of Archaeology, Tsukuba University: “So this is one of the oldest human structures of the water supply in the world because it is date middle Paleolithic period 70, 80 thousand years ego. Now we understand they made some kind structure for water supply or stone. So the middle Paleolithic people is much more advanced people than we expected before”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Fereidun Biglari, Archaeologist:“Archaeological discoveries in South Western Asia show that for the first time Hominids emigrated from Africa to west of Asia around 1,700,000 years ago.”

Narration:Homo Habilis that appeared around 2 million years ago had bigger brains and started to make tools.Homo Erectus got the ability to make use of fire.Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis that were the closest relatives of modern human appeared in Europe around 200,000 years ago and we, Homo Sapiens Sapien as modern human of today appeared in Africa around 150,000 years ago. The two last species lived together for thousands of years but Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis disappeared forever around 30,000 years ago.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Fereidun Biglari, ArchaeologistBoth genetic studies or archaeological studies indicate that groups of intelligent modern man are also originated from Africa and were scattered in west of Asia between 120,000 to 40,000 years ago.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Hamed Vahdatinasab, Assistant Professor of Archaeology: “One the most important ways of immigration is through shores and coastlines.It means that by following the coastlines of either oceans or seas or even river banks these people were easily able to continue their path without being lost. They could provide drinkable water from the rivers that were led into seas. Their foods were consisted of sea foods as well as those animals that were at river banks to drink water. This is the reason why following coastlines was much easier than going through a plateau, for instance Iran’s plateau in which it is easy to get lost without knowing the directions and there is no certainty in terms of finding food and water.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Dr. Akira Tesuneki, Professor of Archaeology, Tsukuba University: “The archeologist told they are two route for out of Africa, one route is be Egypt, be a Sinai and another route via Arabian peninsula to the Persian Gulf. For the out of Africa, for this two route people use the different period, for the southern route out of Africa was happened in the very dry period because level of sea of the red sea and level of Persian Gulf is very low.”

TIME CODE: 10:00_15:00

Narration: Melting or expanding of earth’s glaciers has been a major factor in changes of sea level. Every time that the Earth has experienced the Ice Age, the sea level has been dramatically decreased.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Razieh Lak, Assistant Professor: “Generally the water level of seas and oceans has gone down about 120 meters comparing to what we see today, decrease of ocean levels has affected Persian Gulf with the depth of 100 meters so it has become dry. Dryness of Persian Gulf made it possible for both rivers of Tigris and Euphrates to cross through the Persian Gulf’s bed and flow into the Oman Sea.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Fereidun Biglari, Archaeologist “The flowing river in the region and probably existing springs could have provided a good living condition for the humans of that era.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Abdolreza Dashtizadeh, Archaeologist: “In fact, Persian Gulf has been a relatively fertile region in that time and about 6000 yeas became like what we know as Persian Gulf.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Dr. Akira Tesuneki, Professor of Archaeology, Tsukuba University: For searching southern route the south Iran around Persian Gulf is very important and Arsanjan is of course located in the south Iran, so this is the reason why we started archaeological research in Arsanjan area

Narration: To excavate an ancient archaeological site, at first archaeologists consider a part of the site then they start to dig the ground layers in a very careful way.Each layer usually represents a period of settlement and then abandonment which is distinguished based on soil color and archaeological remains.During excavation, the exact location of the discovered works and antiquities is recorded.Soil from the excavation is analyzed by archaeobotanists and archaeozoologists to find seeds, pollen, bones and animal remains in order to precisely rebuild the environment of that era.The shape of the objects is also analyzed to find out the techniques used in making them.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Shaghayegh Hourshid, Archaeologist:We identified a total of seven layers in which we have found a lot of stone made tools and as of yet 10,000 of them are registered. These stones were used to pare the skin from animals, cut meat and break the bones of hunted animals; in fact these stones were used by humans as tools in their daily life.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Dr. Akira Tesuneki, Professor of Archaeology, Tsukuba University: “From this cave we discover a lot of Mousterian point like this their very typical middle Paleolithic period in the Zagros area. For example this Mousterian point was made on Levallois technique, very special technique of the middle Paleolithic period.”

TIME CODE: 15:00_20:00

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Hamed Vahdatinasab, Assistant Professor of Archaeology:: “With the Levallois technique it is assumed that I already have the shape of whatever I want to make, in my mind. This method provides much greater control over the size and shape of the final flake, comparing to previous methods in which there was no control over the size and shape of final objects.For instance in Levallois technique; to produce a projectile point first a striking platform is formed at one end and then the core's edges are trimmed by flaking off pieces around the outline of the intended flake.When the striking platform is finally hit, a projectile point separates from the core with all of its edges sharpened by the earlier trimming work.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Dr. Katsuhiko Ohnuma, Professor of Archaeology, Kokushikan University: “It was used for hunting animals like gazelle. From layer seven we found this core, it is core Levallois blade core, and last year we subways the area around cave we corrected this core. From experimentation point of view this two completely the same, so I think this two made by one person. I think one person maybe 70 thousand years ego walked between cave site and opening site. That is very interesting.”

SOUNDBITE [English], Dr. Akira Tesuneki, Professor of Archaeology, Tsukuba University: “Iran has very long history from very long times and all of this sites very important for the human history

Narration: Signs of early men are not just seen in the Persian Gulf region.The tools made by early men (Neanderthals) are also found in the Persian Gulf Islands. Islands like Qeshm that were once connected to the main land of Persia.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Abdolreza Dashtizadeh, Archaeologist: “In fact, Qeshm Island is considered as a part of southern Zagros which in late Pleistocene era and early Holocene era in less than 10,000 years ago, this land has become an island. For the same reason we studied Qeshm Island as one of the regions in which there is a possibility of finding archaeological remains of Paleolithic era. This is one of the stone- made tools discovered in Bam-e Qeshm. It’s a kind of stone that a part of it is trimmed by flaking off pieces of its edge to create a sharp edge and make use of it. Due to its shape we think it is probably a cleaver.”

Narration:Within thousands of years, humans have learnt new techniques to make more delicate and efficient tools for their expanded activities.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Cyrus Barfi, Archaeologist-Anthropologist:Gradually in this era humans started to use indirect hits instead of direct ones to shape the objects. In a way that a piece of bone or horn that is attached to one end of a wooden handle and with a sudden pressure a small part of intended object is separated. Using this technique makes the creator of stone objects able to cut the smallest pieces.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Hasan Fazeli Nashtli, Professor of Archaeology, Tehran University:“There have been 3 major revolutions in human history that one of them is related to Neolithic era that man came out of caves and got settled in villages. The second revolution is when human goes from sedentism to urbanization and forms government. The third important revolution is the industrial one that has changed today’s communities.”

TIME CODE: 20:00_25:00

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Hojat Darabi, Archaeologist:“In fact, revolution of Neolithic era refers to a transition from the period of hunting and food gathering to the period of agriculture and animal husbandry. Unlike Paleolithic era that humans were always moving in search for food; in Neolithic era, they experienced the transition from Nomadic lifestyle to Sedentism and started to keep domesticated animals with them.”

Narration: Gradual warming of Earth’s climate made the vegetation coverage denser so there was no more need for humans to constantly move in search for food, consequently first steps towards sedentism were taken.Human sedentism has caused population to gradually increase and this had negative impacts on food resources.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Hojat Darabi, Archaeologist: “The natural reaction of human is to find a solution for the overpopulation problem; so they started to keep food resources like sheep and goats and started to gradually domesticate them and later on some other animals.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Hasan Fazeli Nashtli, Professor of Archaeology, Tehran University: “The domestication of animals means that by some genetic alterations in wild ancestors of these animals humans have made it possible to produce two important products in human history.”

Narration:In the process of domestication, humans succeeded in raising some animals, unlike their wild ancestors that were able to produce more milk and wool than their needs.

After about a thousand years of grain farming our ancestors could find crops that had the capability of being knead.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Hasan Fazeli Nashtli, Professor of Archaeology, Tehran University: Developments in agriculture and animal husbandry have brought dramatic developments in the economy of human societies.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Hojat Darabi, Archaeologist: “Today we are living in continuation of that revolution and if it hadn’t happened we would have lived in the same way people of Paleolithic era used to live.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Dr. Hasan Fazeli Nashtli, Professor of Archaeology, Tehran University: The important economic, cultural, social and political development that happened in Khuzestan is totally different comparing to what happened in the south of Persian Gulf.

It means that cultural Evolution in the southern part of Persian Gulf started much later.

There is maybe a millennium difference in time of transition from Nomadic lifestyle to Sedentism in north of Persian Gulf comparing to South of it. It shows that habitants of North of Persian Gulf started the process of becoming the Neolithic and Sedentism much earlier than the habitants of South of Persian Gulf.”

TIME CODE: 25:00_30:00

Narration: After the domestication of plants and animals and when human beings could produce their basic needs, they gradually began to exchange those products in excess of their needs, and this was the beginning of a phenomenon called “trade". Later, during late sedentism and early urbanization, human beingsgradually started to choose their own field of specialization, communications were developed, fixed routes emerged and tradebecame international. One of the most important of those routes isknown as “The Silk Road” today.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mohammad Esmaeil Esmaeili- Head Of Archaeological Excavation In Siraf: If we want to take a look at the political and commercial relations in the region, two main routes must be considered. One is the land Silk Route and the other is the maritime Silk Route.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Naser Takmil Homayoun- Historian & Sociologist: “The land Silk Road went through Samarkand and Bukhara to Sarakhs and Susia up to Europe.The maritime Silk Route went through China, Bengal, India etc. passing through the Strait of Hormuz up to the port of Siraf.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mohammad Esmaeil Esmaeili- Head Of Archaeological Excavation In Siraf: “In that era, there were very well-known merchants like Soleyman Sirafi or Captain Shahryar Ramhormozi who used to sail directly from Siraf to China. Of course, historical documents of those sailings are all available.”

Narration: There are two ways to realize that the events occurred in the distant past. One is to study the historical texts and the other one is to study the archaeological excavations’ findings.

Some evidence has been found in the Persian Gulf region through archaeological excavations that proves the existence of marine communications between various civilizations of the ancient world.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mohammad Esmaeil Esmaeili- Head Of Archaeological Excavation In Siraf: “In the port of Siraf, one Roman coin was discovered by David Whitehouse in 1968, which is a very valuable source of study. Apart from the coin, there is also a large collection of coins from the Sassanid dynasty, mainly from the middle and late Sassanid era. Architectural findings in Siraf are also significant. There is a mosque in Siraf considered as one of the oldest mosques in Iran. The mosque was built on a Sassanid fortress. The southern part of the fortress that overlooks the sea has been completely excavated and its entrances have all been found.”

Narration: In 224 AD, the Sassanid Empire was formed when the Parthian king Ardavan V was defeated by Ardashir I. The Sassanids, who were very interested in the development of art and architecture, built many structures and cities in their 400 years of rule among which was the Port of Siraf. The conquest of Iran by Muslim Arabs and the end of Sassanid rule also couldn’t stop the increasing growth of Siraf. Subsequently it remained one the most important trade ports in the world for hundreds of years. Siraf has become so crowded that 3 and 4 story buildings were built there and even corpses were buried in stone graves dug in the mountains surrounding the city.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mohammad Esmaeil Esmaeili- Head of Archaeological Excavation In Siraf: “What I’ve found in my researches is the claw structure of the settlement centers and ports of the Persian Gulf. By the claw structure I mean that the main power centers are far away from the coasts of the Persian Gulf, in comparison the main nourishing ports, are alongside the sea. Based on this pattern, you can see that the city of Alrajan is supported by the port of Mahrooban. The very important city of Firooz Abad is also located behind the port of Siraf. Above all there was the important city of Shiraz in the Islamic period. It means that the main power and wealth centers and markets were dependent on the ports for importing and distributing goods.”

TIME CODE: 30:00_35:00

Narration: The products reached the Siraf port by merchant ocean liners and were distributed in the region through a network of roads, bridges and caravansaries and finally exchanged in the market place. Some of those market places are still as active as they used to be. Pottery, silk, porcelain, spices, perfumes and precious stones from India, wood and ivory from Africa were part of the goods that were exchanged in those market places. In return, Persian Gulf pearls, rose water and perfumes, garments and textiles, precious carpets and minerals and even bitumen were exported from the ports of the Persian Gulf by skilled Iranian and non-Iranian sailors to other parts of the world.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mohsen Javeri-Head of Archaeological Excavation In Qalhat-Oman: “The ports of the Persian Gulf were not used only for exporting goods and products but also for exporting Iranian culture and thoughts across the globe during both pre-and post-Islamic periods. “

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mohammad Esmaeil Esmaeili- Head of Archaeological Excavation in Siraf: “Islam was mainly expanded through India and China by Iranian sailors. There was no war, no bloodshed and no struggle. The sailors were in effect preachers, transferring culture.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Abdolreza Dashtizadeh, Archaeologist: There used to be a massive expansion of trading and commercial relations between Iran, East Africa and the Far East. This shows the great potential of Iran at that time.

There are many Timurid sites in Oman among which we can name Qalhat.

Narration: In the past, the Port of Qalhat, in today's Oman, was also one of the other major ports of the Persian Sea. In those days, the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman and a significant part of the Indian Ocean were all called the Persian Sea and the Persian rulers used to rule over Qlhat and other ports and Islands of the Persian Sea. The port was mentioned in the travel logs of Marco Polo and other travelers who had visited it.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mohsen Javeri- Head of Archaeological Excavation In Qalhat-Oman:In terms of typology of the architecture there are many similarities between architecture of Qalhat and Iranian Islands like Hormuz, Kharg and Qeshm. This proves the existence of the same culture in the region.”

Narration: Today, similar historical sites can be seen in some parts of East Africa. The structures and buildings were made by those people who emigrated from Iran to the coasts of East Africa. In the tenth century AD, a person named Ali bin Hassan along with his family moved from the city of Shiraz to the port of Siraf and left the port with seven ships to the East and North Eastern parts of Africa, today known as Kenya and Tanzania, and formed a new government there.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Amir Bahram Arab Ahmadi- Head of Southern Africa Department Tehran University:“People from Shiraz lived in this area for almost five centuries which proves their nice interaction with the native people of the region.The fact that a group of foreigners with a population of nearly 200 to 300 were able to get settled in an unknown area, arranged marriage to the people of the region and even survive for 5 centuries is a remarkable point that requires further studies.”

Narration: The Shirazian people were originally Persians and one of their distinctive Persian characteristics was to interact with other people and nations and to respect others people’s beliefs. Cyrus the great, the Persian king who founded the Achaemenid empire in the fifth century BC , is also well recognized for his achievements in human rights, politics, and military strategy, as well as his influence on both Eastern and Western civilizations. Signs of moral characteristics can be seen in the remains of the Achaemenid reliefs. The way in which Achaemenid soldiers treated the representatives of affiliated nations are clearly visible there. The Shirazian people treated native Africans and other African civilizations with respect and succeeded in changing the areas under their rule into thriving business centers, until some events changed the situation of the world in those days.

TIME CODE: 35:00_40:00

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Hoshang Talea- Historian:“Constantinople, the capital of Byzantine Empire was conquered in 1453 A.D by the Ottoman Turks.After the conquest of Constantinople there was no more trade between the East and the West.Consequently, Europeans began to find a new way toward the East.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Ali Rajabloo- Professor of Sociology Alzahra University, Iran: “If we remember that Europeans still live in feudal units, we can also remember that the Portuguese are skilled sailors.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Hoshang Talea- Historian:At this time, two powerful governments of Portugal and Spain were at war with each other over more colonies. So Pope Alexander VI mediated between them and divided the world between the two empires.”

Narration: Pope Alexander VI gave the Earth’s Western Hemisphere to Spain and the

Eastern one to the Portuguese and of course Brazil in the Western

hemisphere also went to the Portuguese.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Ali Rajabloo- Professor of Sociology Alzahra University, Iran: Therefore, it seems that the Portuguese were the first sailors who began to colonize.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Hoshang Talea- Historian: “For the first time in 1486, Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the southern tip of Africa in the hope of finding a trade route to India without noticing that he was in the Indian Ocean, so he returned home. 12 years later, Vasco da Gama used the same path to reach the Indian Ocean but he got disappointed and docked at one of Zanzibar’s ports.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Amir Bahram Arab Ahmadi- Head of Southern Africa Department Tehran University:“After the arrival of the Portuguese in the East Africa, the people who had come from Shiraz were faced with their wrath. The city was destroyed completely by the Portuguese soldiers and naval warships.”

Narration: This time Albuquerque was able to reach India with the help of maps that the Shirazi sailors had provided.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Hoshang Talea- Historian:Vasco da Gamma could gradually find a position for himself as a merchant. Then he built a castle and deployed some cannons there.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Ali Rajabloo- Professor Of Sociology Alzahra University, Iran: During the same period we’ve got Afonso de Albuquerque, another Portuguese sailor who moved to the Persian Gulf. “

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Hoshang Talea- Historian: “Through war and destruction he could conquer the Island of Hormuz which was ruled then by Iran.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Ali Rajabloo- Professor of Sociology Alzahra University, Iran: Qeshm and other islands in the Persian Gulf were conquered by Albuquerque afterwards. He could even reach Bahrain. There were skilled Portuguese sailors called “the Lusitanians” who were serving Albuquerque. The Lusitanians were merciless killers. Many horrific crimes were committed by them on the Arabic coasts as well as in Hormoz and Qeshm.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mohsen Javeri - Head of Archaeological Excavation In Qalhat-Oman: “It is said that noses and ears of the people in the region were cut off and strung on chains by Albuquerque.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Hoshang Talea- Historian: “Those people who had their noses and ears cut off were sold as slaves.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mohsen Javeri - Head of Archaeological Excavation In Qalhat-Oman: Extensive ruins can still be seen in the region.”

Narration: Another thriving port of ancient times was Harireh, an ancient 8th century city located in what is now Kish, Iran. In 976 AD the port of Siraf was devastated by a massive earthquake. Consequently the port of Harireh gradually became the main trade center in the Persian Sea.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mahmood Mousavi- Head of Archaelogical Excavation In Harireh:“It’s surprising that after the arrival of Portuguese in the Persian Gulf, the city was abandoned. At first, we thought that an earthquake had made people leave the city but geological studies shows that there is no sign of such an earthquake and the city was just deserted.”

TIME CODE: 40:00_45:00

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Ali Rajabloo- Professor of Sociology Alzahra University, Iran: This led to the idea of liberating the Iranian islands from the hands of the Portuguese in later years.”

Narration: In the period that the Portuguese began to occupy the islands and shores of the Persian Gulf, the Safavid Iranian Government was involved in a long-term conflict with the Ottoman Empire to prevent them from entering the territory of Iran. The Portuguese took advantage of the opportunity and constructed their own fortresses in the region. Albuquerque believed that the island of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf was one of the world’s three strategic locations and that having control over it would result in the domination of global maritime trade. Thus, he built a strong fortress on the island. Since Hormuz island is geologically a salt dome and there is a lack of fresh water, Albuquerque built a supply fort there too, to be able to store fresh water, ammunition and needed supplies for his troops.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Abdolreza Dashtizadeh, Archaeologist: “After the arrival of the Portuguese here and after they built this castle by the Arab slaves that they had brought with them, for 110 years Portuguese lived in the island. Finally, the castle was captured by Imam-Quli Khan, a famous Safavid general.”

Narration: Emamgholi Khan, the ruler of Fars Province at the time of Shah Abbas took his army to the coasts of the Persian Gulf.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Ehsan Yaghmaei- Head of Arhaeological Excavation In Qeshm:

“With the help of the British, Imam-Quli Khan invaded the castle on Qeshm. The Portuguese Castle was the first place to be invaded, seized and set on fire. because he wanted to destroy the ammunition stores, so the Portuguese would leave the Hormuz castle without ammunition and make the conquest easier. The Spanish ambassador who visited the castle of Qeshm two days after the conquest describes the scenes this way: “I went there and found the small yard of the castle full of the Portuguese, Arab, British and Iranian corpses. Bitumen was still dripping from the top of the entrances and smoke was still rising from the burnt gate. Inoperative Portuguese cannons were still over the towers.” Three months after the fall of the Qeshm fortress, the Larak and Hormuz fortresses also fell. The Larak castle was a residential fortress and the Hormuz castle was the domicile of the Portuguese senior naval commanders.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Ali Rajabloo- Professor of Sociology Alzahra University, Iran: “It was on April 24, 1622 that the Iranians could take Hormuz and Bandar Abbas back from the Portuguese. As a result, the Portuguese fled toward the southern coasts and settled in Muscat, Oman. Since then, we have witnessed the decline of the Portuguese presence in the Persian Gulf.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Hoshang Talea- Historian: “Then, the Dutch entered Iran, of course as merchants.”

Narration: With the permission of Iran’s government, the Dutch established many business offices at Persian Gulf ports, but then gradually closed their offices in the ports and moved to Kharg Island where they started to build castles and deploy heavy weapons in the fortresses.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Ali Rajabloo- Professor of Sociology Alzahra University, Iran: “In 1765, Mir Mahna was the ruler of Bandar Rig. As he felt that Kharg Island was almost captured by the Dutch, he invaded and conquered the island and sent the Dutch out. It was a milestone in the history of the Persian Gulf that a local Iranian ruler could defeat foreign forces with 12,000 troops in Kharg Island and throw them away forever.”

TIME CODE: 45:00_50:00

Narration: When Mir Mahna was faced with the invasion of the Dutch, he began to fight for the liberation of his land. At the age of 18 and during the rule of his father over the region, Mir Mahna took part in the liberation of Bahrain by defeating the occupying Hula Arabs. But this time he took command of the battle himself. Today, there are some people of the Mir Mahna clan still living in the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf and still preserve their old traditions such as the important role of the patriarch in addressing the problems and spiritual needs of family members.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Hasan Rashedi:“He was a great man in the village taking care of the people’s problems.”

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mir Ahma Rashedi: “Hospitality is common among all the Iranian people, especially the Arabs.It was a custom in the past not to ask a guest for 3 days why he came by. The host used to wait until the guest wanted to talk about his reason to visit.Now, every Arab and every person from Khuzestan is supposed to have a separate room in the house as a guest room.Chiefs and Sheiks have got bigger guest rooms with separate yards to make the guests feel at home.”

Narration: People living on the edge of the Persian Gulf were very welcoming towards the Dutch at the beginning, but experiencing their tyrannical behavior, they all joined Mir Mahna to free their lands.

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mir Ahmad Rashedi: “Every tribe has its own flag, which is the history of the tribe and represents solidarity. It is used on special occasions like war or death of the tribe’s sheikh.”


The strengths of my heart resulted from tears of my family, relatives and tribes.

And that's why I come with love.

Gathering my brothers in times of hardship and difficulties

Have created unity and solidarity.

If you want to experience just ask them.

To see the bravery and courage

We are always ready to obtain the truth

SOUNDBITE [Persian], Mir Ahmad Rashedi: “Everyone is proud of his flag.”

Narration: After 15 years of struggle, Mir Mahna and his followers succeeded indriving the Dutch out of the Persian Gulf and finally raised theirwaving tribal flag over the Kharg Island.

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